Essay on The Epidemic Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

1712 Words May 11th, 2015 7 Pages
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (more commonly known as HIV) is a disease that has been around for over 3 decades, and continues to rise with little to no sign of eradication. The origin of HIV is not certain but there are several theories with the most popular one being that it came from a mutation of a similar virus found in chimpanzees. An estimated 35 million people are living with HIV around the world. Because of this, many scientists are doing research to try to pinpoint the mechanism of its transmission with hopes in finding some type of cure because as of today, there is no cure. In this paper I will break down the disease and talk about the mechanism of the virus itself, transmission, prevalence, symptoms, treatment and preventative measures. HIV belongs to the family of Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus. Because it is a Retrovirus it begins as an RNA virus, which then replicates via a DNA intermediate. The virus enters cells through interaction with a CD4 positive T-cells and macrophages that carry specific receptors. HIV gradually destroys the immune system by killing CD4 cells which are a type of white blood cell that plays a large role in protecting the body from foreign substances and infections (article). Because there are so many T cells, macrophages throughout the body the virus can distribute in a variety of locations where these types of cells are present. However, the brain is the frequent location of infections with microgial cells being the location of…

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