Four Limbed-Vertebrates Research Paper

The anatomy between a human foot, horse’s foot or a bear’s foot are completely different. Despite the difference, there are four limbed-vertebrates which have the same basic pattern of bones. Vertebrates are animals of a large group characterized by the possession of a backbone or spinal column. Vertebrates with four limbs are called tetrapods. Generally, all limbs do the same work to achieve one purpose: support the body and move it from place to place. Some animals have limbs that enhance their ability to crawl, walk, run, jump, and climb. Others have limbs adapted for swimming or flying. Only a few vertebrates, such as snakes, have lost their limbs and move without legs.
Most four-limbed vertebrates move on all four legs. The structures at the ends of the legs are called feet. There are some four-limbed vertebrates that are bipedal which means that they can on two feet for a certain amount of time. Some walk on four feet and run on only two. Others walk and run on two but stand on four. Humans are true bipeds. This means we stand, walk, and run only on two feet.
In early four-limbed vertebrates, a basic pattern of bones was established in the limbs. It was passed on to four-limbed vertebrates that evolved later. In some of these animals, the pattern stayed much the same. However, in
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Throughout that time period, four-limbed vertebrates began transitioning from living in water to walking on land. The pentadactyl limb has been passed down in a modified form to many different animals. An example of these animals that are shown to have the pentadactyl limb includes amphibians such as a frog and a salamander and mammals such as a horse and a human. In humans and other primates, the distal area of their fingers and toes are protected by nails. In other vertebrates, such as a horse, hooves serve as the nails. The shape of the last bone of each digit reflects the shape and size of the

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