Costco Capital Structure

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Capital Structure
Debt and equity are the principal components of a company’s long term capital and capital structure describes this composition (combination of debt and equity) of the company’s permanent/long term capital. Capital structure is an indicator of how a firm finances its overall operations and growth using the different sources of funds available. It is a mix of long-term debt, short-term debt, common equity and preferred equity. Debt is in the form of bond issues or long-term notes payable while equity can be common stock, preferred stock or retained earnings. The proportion of short and long term debt is considered while analyzing the capital structure. It provides an insight of the leverage that a company has and how prone
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Value Chain Activities
Tata Motors:

Inbound Logistics: Long term contracts with service providers, daily transport logistics and monitoring through IT deployment- all transaction going through SAP and efficient storage facilities.
Operations: Automated manufacturing processes, distributed manufacturing – assembly units in South Africa, Thailand, Brazil etc , capacity utilization ,Kaizen and TPM(Total Productive Management) to improve efficiencies.
Outbound Logistics: Regional sales offices, long term contracts with transporters and distributors and stockyards across the country.
Marketing: Independent sales teams for different customers and segments- defense, consumers, transport units, QFD conducted at regular intervals, large network of dealers and distributors , identification of changing consumer trends to develop innovative products, use of CRM.
Service: Easy availability of spare parts, large network of workshops, training facilities for deales and service men.

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd:

Inbound Logistics: Just In Time implementation, demand management system, implementation of logistics improvement systems.
Operations: Lean Manufacturing, Value Added Engineering(constant prices),K-Engine(fuel efficient) plant used in

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