In sports, the competitive drive to win can be very intensive between athletes. Winning in the game usually brings rewards to athletes both financially and psychologically. Such temptations and the consecutive pressures faced by athletes to excel in the sporting events, attempts to achieve a rival edge especially when the application of performance enhancing drugs by athletes in sports activities has becoming a new trend and relatively common. Performance enhancing drugs are used so athletes could achieve better results with least efforts, even as their health and their athletic careers will be placed in danger. That explains why athletes, sports people and body builders turn to performanc enhancing drugs.
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Besides, the liver also produces bile for food digestion. Excessive anabolic steroids that are taken orally can result in a decreased hepatic excretory function (ability to clear the waste products from blood) as the anabolic steroids cannot be easily metabolized in the liver. Furthermore, anabolic steroid abusers might develop other hepatic diseases such as hepatic cholestasis, hepatic peliosis and hepatocellular adenomas. Hepatic cholestasis is caused by the leaking of bile into blood stream and it is reflected by itching, hepatocellular jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, dark urine, and hepatic peliosis. The disease hepatic peliosis is a life threatening condition where the cystic degeneration of liver occurs and development of blood filled cysts. They are risky as the rupturing of cysts can cause fatal bleeding in liver. Hepatocellular adenomas are mostly caused by anabolic steroids which carry a 17 alpha alkylated group. Usually, the liver tumors are not cancerous and are developed after stop taking anabolic steroids. Other than that, concentration of liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) will be elevated by the excessive use of anabolic steroids and thus the plasma activity will be increased as well. When these enzymes are present in high concentrations in hepatocytes will cause inflammation and