Running head: EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON MALE AND FEMALE CHILDREN AGES 4-11
What Are the Effects of Domestic Violence on Male and Female Children ages 4-11?
University of South Carolina
Counseling Education Graduate Program Introduction
The purpose of this research proposal is to identify the specific differences in the effects of domestic violence in male and female children ages 4-11.
Justification of Proposed Research Child exposure to adult domestic violence and its effects has increasingly become a concern for both practitioners and researchers. It is estimated that between ten and twenty percent of children in the United States are exposed to domestic violence
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The purpose of the study was to determine the independent impact of direct and indirect forms of violence at home. The independent variables are domestic violence and child abuse. The dependent variable is externalizing symptoms. The study was conducted with 532 students (49.7% boys, 50.3% girls) recruited from five different middle schools in Rome, Italy and its surrounding areas. Their ages ranged from 9 to 15 years of age. In this study indirect exposure is defined as exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrated by either the mother or the father toward the parent. Direct exposure is defined as direct abuse towards the child from the mother or father, and it could be physical, psychological, or sexual in nature. Results from this study revealed that exposure to domestic violence and direct parental abuse is a widespread experience. Externalizing behavior was measured with a 33-item subscale of the Italian version of the Original Behavioral Check List, Youth Self-Report Scale. Preadolescents’ exposure to parental violence was measured with a modified version of the Conflict Tactic Scale adapted for Italian youngsters by Baldry. To measure mother and father abuse against the child, participants had to answer four different questions for each parent. Externalizing problems were found to be significantly associated with parental abuse, indicating that children who