Essay on Psy Studies
As Psychology Key Studies – Cognitive
Method | Findings | Conclusion | Evaluation | Milner et al1957 | To see where STM is stored | HM Who suffered from frequent epilepsy, had his hippocampus removed | Could not form new LTM. Reading a book without realising he read it before | * | * | Peterson & Peterson1959 | Duration of S/LTM | Pps were shown nonsense trigram e.g. NHB and had different time intervals 3, 6, 9…18. Distraction task was to count back in 3s from a given number | The longer the interval, the harder it is to remember i.e. 3 was the easiest and 18 the hardest | When rehearsal is prevented, very little can stay in STM for over 18 seconds | * Reliable – Lab …show more content…
EWT and Cognitive Interview Loftus and Palmer1974 | Evaluation of leading questions | Showed a video of a crash and used words like clashed, collided in one group and hit and smashed in another | The leading questions changed answers | Leading questions affect accuracy | * Artificial * Not as emotionally arousing as a real life situation – a later study of a real robbery proved that pps gave more accurate info. * Demand characteristics due to leading questions | Loftus and Zanni2975Add study | Misleading questions | Showed pps a film of a car crash and asked ‘Did you see the broken headlight?’ or ‘Did you see a broken headlight?’ | 7% asked using the work ‘a’ claimed they saw one compared to 17% on ‘the’ | Words can effect peoples accuracy of memory. | * | Valentine and Coxon1997Add study | Age and effect on EWT | Three groups of pps (children, young adults and elderly) watched a video of a kidnapping before non/leading questions were asked | Elderly and children gave more incorrect answers to non-leading questions.