Neurotransmitters Essay

Improved Essays
What are Neurotransmitters?
The functions of the brain rely heavily on a complex system of communication. The brain’s process of communication is supported by a series of cells called Neurons which submit chemical charges known as Neurotransmitters. Neurons are the foundation for the brain’s functions and consist of three basic parts such as the Cell Body, Dendrites and Axons.
The chemical transmissions from Neurotransmitters are the product of messages being communicated from one Neuron to the next through the axon of the cell. This message is better known as an Action Potential, which is “an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength”. (Kalat, 1992)Action Potential can be caused by sodium ions traveling through the axon
…show more content…
When hippocampal cells lose their functions many episodic memories fade by up to 90 percent. As the disease spreads individuals begin “forgetting” simplistic information such as bladder control and also more sentimental information such as the recognition of family members. There is not yet a cure for the disease however there are multiple drugs that assist in the inhibiting of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine at the synapse, preventing the normal breakdown of the neurotransmitter. (wisegeek.com)
Dopamine
Dopamine is neurotransmitter of the brain responsible for the proper usage of a variety of functions including movement, attention, learning, sleep as well as memory. Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. The brain is dependent of Dopamine to help regulate movement and when there is too little or too much being produced it results in the body making unnecessary movements. A shortage of Dopamine may lead to Parkinson’s Disease which is a shortage of neurons that help produce or control movement. Dopamine is also released during pleasurable situations such as sex, or consuming food when hungry. The neurotransmitter is also responsible for the processing of feeling pain and when levels are low it can increase the pain related symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. (Dr
…show more content…
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter. The pathways linked with Glutamate are closely related to many other neurotransmitter pathways. Glutamate is known to be a crucial component of the nervous systems of most mammals including humans. Glutamate is responsible for storing not only information needed for every day task but also information needed for cells to survive and function, making it one of the most important neurotransmitters. This information allows for cells to distinguish each other apart, as well as form a connection with synapses. However, with too much Glutamate it can be toxic to the brain causing over excitation of the cell and causing them to die. Glutamate exerts its’s effect on the brain by biding to specific receptors on the nerving. Patient’s with Huntington’s Diseases are over activated by glutamate which is due to the impairments in the patient’s energy metabolism. According to the National Library of Medicine “Patients carrying the mutation display motor dysfunction, manifested as chorea in early stages, then as akinesia and sometimes dystonia in later stages. Other symptoms include depression, anxiety, irritability or aggressive behavior”. There is not yet a cure for Huntington Disease but it is recommended for individuals infected to practice a healthy lifestyle accompanied by therapy.

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    The mammalian nervous system consists of highly specialised cells called neurons, alongside supporting cells. The human brain contains 1010 to 1012 neurons (1). Neurons have a distinct cell shape and range from microns up to a millimeter in length. Neurons’ unique structure allows for rapid and specific transmission of signals along a neuron, and from one neuron to another. Neurons transmit nerve impulses over long and thin axons, and receive information through branches of dendrites.…

    • 947 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The long-term effect of drinking can cause Korsakoff syndrome, which is the deficiency of thiamine (Oudman, E. 2014). The Korsakoff s syndrome is also known for its effect on the brain’s memory, individuals with this syndrome do have anterograde amnesia, and they cannot store new information to memory. The deficiency in the body because of the chronic misuse of alcohol has done damage to the diencephalon part of the brain. This brain cells are killed in areas of the diencephalon, thalamus and hypothalamus parts of the brain. Patients that have Korsakoff also have a cortical atrophy that the outer layers of the brain are wasting away.…

    • 1151 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Antidepressants Essay

    • 1395 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The heart will in turn cause the kidneys to malfunction causing weight retention which will contribute to even more health issues. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used in an attempt to adjust the low levels of this chemical. According to Healthline, “These drugs fight depression symptoms by decreasing serotonin reuptake in the brain. This effect leaves more serotonin available to work in your brain.” (Cherney pt. 2.)…

    • 1395 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In this sense, the drug will increasingly become dependent on survival. The brain then becomes permanently altered by damaged neurotransmitters and decreased levels of dopamine. Addiction is common for people with mental illnesses. One causes the other; the addiction can’t be treated without co-treatment of the depression (thus inducing relapse or continued use) and vice versa. Co-occurring disorders cause constant craving, drug seeking behavior in order to maintain stimulation of pleasure throughout the brain.…

    • 762 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The amyloid plaque becomes embedded in the cell membrane. Once those plaques are on there, the plaque gets attached to the brain and is hard for it to be reversed; however this process can be slowed down. In a normal non-diseased brain, the tau proteins are functional, which stabilize the microtubules. In Alzheimer’s, the neurofilbrillary tangles become distortions of the tau proteins in the neurons, which become all tangled up and those microtubules lose their function (Mastroeni 2013). That then affects the person’s ability to function and work in life and it damages…

    • 1146 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    B1 vitamin is used in the brain to change sugar into energy. If there is a shortage then there will be a shortage of energy and thus, making the brain function less. Vascular dementia- basically vascular dementia is mini strokes across the brain that will affect the brain and in turn affect the brain function as the blood vessels will either get blocked or be damaged creating bleeds on the brain and creating damage. Huntington’s disease- this is caused by a faulty gene which as an individual grows the illness…

    • 356 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    With the Dopamine levels in the brain decreasing it shows abnormal brain activity. The decrease in Dopamine causes the person to lose control over their body movements.” (NIH Senior Mind: “Parkinson’s Disease”). Although the causes of Parkinson’s disease are unknown, the researchers have found several factors they think may be important. Sometimes when there are several cases of Parkinson’s in the same family researchers could find specific genetic mutations that could have cause this. They have also found genetic variations which increase the risk of someone developing Parkinson’s.…

    • 2165 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Their key role is to link the Central Nervous System, all parts of the body and it is an essential communication system back and forth the spinal cord and the brain as well as the entire body. These sections of the nervous system are governed by the Neurones, they differ in their purpose, substantial support, and in administering substance signature, below is my attempt to pen down their…

    • 1627 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Parkinson 's Disease is caused by the death of dopamine-generating cells in a region in the midbrain called the substantia nigra. When dopamine levels decrease, it causes abnormal brain activity, leading to signs of Parkinson 's disease. The dopamine released by nerve cells of the substantia nigra stimulates another brain region, the corpus striatum. Without enough dopamine, the corpus striatum cannot control its targets, and so on down the line. Ultimately, the movement patterns of walking, writing, reaching for objects, and other basic actions cannot function properly, resulting in the symptoms of parkinsonism (Gulli, Laith…

    • 906 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Many of you know of Michael J. Fox’s condition with Parkinson’s Disease. What neurotransmitter is thought to be related to the development of Parkinson’s disease? What drugs are used to treat it and what are the drugs doing? The drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease L-dopa, increasing the creation of dopamine once it’s in the brain, this drug treatment was discovered after injecting dopamine was an unsuccessful treatment because it couldn’t break the blood-brain barrier. By increasing the production of dopamine there are potential serious side-effects, and the treatment becomes ineffective for the patient as the disease as the disease progresses.…

    • 1021 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays