Short-term plasticity at the ORN PN synapse could result in PN responses that are strongest during the rising phase of the ORN response since the ORN PN synapses display short-term depression that causes ORN spikes that arrive later to produce smaller postsynaptic potentials than the ones produced by earlier spikes. In depressing synapses, successive action potentials result in smaller and smaller postsynaptic responses. The reduction in postsynaptic responses could be due to smaller amount of neurotransmitter release by the presynaptic neuron. Depressing synapses are characterized by high starting release probability. Thus, there are large amounts of neurotransmitter release at beginning of stimulus train. However, this large amount of release depletes the number of vesicles readily available for release. As a result, the amount of release declines as stimulus train proceeds. Thus,…
other parts of the tree. Myelin sheath surrounds the axon as its protective barrier, much the same way as bark on a tree protects the tree from external threats. When the bark on a tree is damaged, the tree can begin to die. The myelin sheath protects the axon from being damaged. When a person decides to do crack cocaine, they are killing the myelin sheath, which in turn is killing their brain cells. The importance of the roots of a tree is to send nutrients up to the rest of the tree to help in…
far exceed the number of neurons and the number of synapses in the
6.1 components of the network
Spikes: Polychronous spikes have two major properties—They
are asynchronous, but time-locked and (ii) Axonal delays may
lead them to be coincident at another point in the network.
Delays: Synapses have axonal delays in the range of 1-20ms.
Axonal delays lead to firing patterns that cannot be produced
Networks: To simulate polychronization, we use a large,…
Neurotransmitters are proteins produced by the nervous system. To be classified as a neurotransmitter, a chemical must bridge the synapse and induce an electric current in a dendrite. Neurotransmitters may either excite the dendrite or inhibit it, and the same neurotransmitter may be excitatory or inhibitory in different neural circuits. Neurotransmitters that increase activity in the neuron are said to be excitatory. In contrast, neurotransmitters that decrease activity in the neuron are said…
for adrenaline or often called, the fight-or-flight. It is released from the adrenal glands when we need an instant response to danger. It is targeted to many cells; it increases the blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose availability. Epinephrine acts through adenosine monophosphate, it is a second messenger. It is carried in the bloodstream and binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell. Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction, the major symptoms are a drop in blood pressure,…
and the axon. A cell body is exactly as it sounds, the body of the cell that holds most everything. It resembles an uprooted tree root mass (Medina, 89). The dendrites are small fibers that can send or receive signals from other neurons. The dendrites would be the root tips on the uprooted tree. An axon is essentially the transmitter of the neuron. It sends the signals to the dendrites that come from the cell body. This would be the trunk of the uprooted tree in our imagining of a neuron.
PSYC 110 Final Exam
1. (TCOs 1, 2) According to Freud, unconscious urges (Points : 5)
are able to be suppressed.
only pertain to sex.
attempt to surface and affect our behaviors.
have no impact on everyday life.
Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2) Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next…
caused by sensory stimuli, throughout the body (Spitzer, 1999). Even further specialized sensory neurons are responsible for receiving natural information from the world through apparatuses depending on their location in the body, i.e sensory neurons within the eye will have different sensory neurons than those in the skin.
For the sake of simplicity, this essay will mainly focus on non-specialized neurons that consist of four major points of interest: cell body, dendrites, axon, and synapse…
neuron (i.e. the brain or the spinal cord), the length of the axon can be different. For example, the axons in the brain are shorter (Pastorino and Doyle-Portillio, 2015). The axon carries the neural impulse away from the cell body. Several structures to note that are present on the axon include the myelin sheath and the nodes of Ranvier. The myelin sheath helps with the insulation of the neural impulse and the nodes of Ranvier are the spaces that are uncovered by the myelin sheath. Once the…
a chemical signal. They are separated by other neurons by a small gap called the
In order to truly understand the biological depth of learning, it’s imperative to understand
the synapse and synaptic firing. The synapse is the communication between neurons. Synaptic
firing is what causes dendrites to grow. This occurs when endorphins are released into the
synapses. As people learn, two hormones can be released into our synapses. There are
endorphins and norepinephrine.…