Bronfenbrenner's Theory Of Cognitive Development

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There are many different theories on how children learn based on heredity and environment. There are four general principles of human development and they are; development is somewhat predictable, children develop at different rates, development is marked by periods of rapid growth between periods of slower growth, and heredity and environment interact in their efforts on development. The degree to which heredity and environment interact with each other makes it difficult to distinguish how each one plays a role in various human characteristics. Of the many psychologists who have a theory on learning, this paper will discuss Bronfenbrenner’s multiple layers of environmental influence, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and Vygotsky’s …show more content…
29). Stage one is sensorimotor, which begins at birth. During the sensorimotor stage, a child 's schemes are based on behaviors and perceptions. A child will create their schemes based on what is in their immediate surroundings (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage two he called preoperational, which starts at about age 2. During the preoperational stage, children are able to talk about things beyond their immediate experience but are unable to reason logically (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage three is concrete operations, which starts at about ages 6 or 7. The concrete operations stage, children are able to begin reasoning logically in adult ways but are still very limited in their application of adult reasoning (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage four is formal operations, which starts at about age 11 or 12. During the formal operations stage, children are able to apply their logical reasoning processes (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Piaget believed that in order to reach the next stage a child must have developed the foundational skills in their current stage to move on to the …show more content…
36). Vygotsky focused on the influence of social and cultural factors to develop the sociocultural theory. In sociocultural theory a child’s social environment including informal conversations and formal schooling, physical and cognitive tools, and language will foster cognitive growth. Children learn how to interpret situations culturally through informal conversations with adults. Through formal education, children learn cultural ideas, concepts and common terminology (Ormrod, 2014, p. 37). Children develop complex mental processes through social activities that evolve into internal mental activities (Ormrod, 2014, p. 38). For example, children learn through arguments with other children or adults, that there is more than one way to view a situation. When children learn how to view a situation in more than one way they are being taught perception. Vygotsky not only focused on a child’s current developmental level but their potential development level. With the help of an adult, children can complete tasks that are more difficult. A child cannot maximize their growth potential if they are not being challenged with different tasks above their current developmental level. Lastly, Vygotsky believed that through play, children are able to stretch themselves cognitively. “In play a child always behaves beyond his average age, above his daily

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