Layers Of Environmental Influence And Bronfenbrenner's Theory Of Cognitive Development

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There are many different theories on how children learn based on heredity and environment. There are four general principles of human development and they are; development is somewhat predictable, children develop at different rates, development is marked by periods of rapid growth between periods of slower growth, and heredity and environment interact in their efforts on development. The degree to which heredity and environment interact with each other makes it difficult to distinguish how each one plays a role in various human characteristics. Of the many psychologists who have a theory on learning, this paper will discuss Bronfenbrenner’s multiple layers of environmental influence, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and Vygotsky’s …show more content…
The first layer of environmental influence is the family, then the second layer being neighborhood and community, the last layer being the state/province and country. The family can support development through; parenting practices, how relationships with siblings and grandparents is formed, the kind of nutrition and medical care that is provided, and education activities such as bedtime reading or access to computer technology (Ormrod, 2014, p. 22). The neighborhood and community can support development through resources such as playgrounds and helpful neighbors (Ormrod, 2014, p. 22), which fosters a positive learning environment for children to use their imagination. The state/province and country can support development by providing resources to parents through government-mandated programs or tax dollars to help build up and provide resources for their surrounding areas (Ormod, 2014, p. 22). Bronfenbrenner believes that culture influences all of these layers, because culture provides a framework in which a child comes to learn what is right and wrong in a …show more content…
29). Stage one is sensorimotor, which begins at birth. During the sensorimotor stage, a child 's schemes are based on behaviors and perceptions. A child will create their schemes based on what is in their immediate surroundings (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage two he called preoperational, which starts at about age 2. During the preoperational stage, children are able to talk about things beyond their immediate experience but are unable to reason logically (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage three is concrete operations, which starts at about ages 6 or 7. The concrete operations stage, children are able to begin reasoning logically in adult ways but are still very limited in their application of adult reasoning (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Stage four is formal operations, which starts at about age 11 or 12. During the formal operations stage, children are able to apply their logical reasoning processes (Ormrod, 2014, p. 29). Piaget believed that in order to reach the next stage a child must have developed the foundational skills in their current stage to move on to the

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