Analysis Of Piaget's Expectations Of Children

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However, Piaget's expectations from children in young age (2 years old) to understand clearly, that a cup can be used only as a cup and as they were not able to do that, he developed some limitations for this stage that have been described above. Recent studies have reexamined the illogical characteristic of Piaget thought's in the preoperational stage and developmental psychologists John Flavell has developed two levels of perspective-talking abilities. At Flavell's level 1 (2-3 years old), the child knows that the others have their own perspective of seeing things. At level 2 (4-5 years old), the child develop the ability to understand what the other people see or experience (Flavell, Green, & Flavell, 1990).
Flavell produced an experiment for children away from the Piaget's egocentrism. In Favell's experiment, the experimenter shows to child a painted sponge which looks like a rock. A 3 years old child according to Flavell, will say that either the object look like a
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Vygotsky's theory is different from Piaget and information processing theories. Sociocultural perspective emphasized on society and culture for promoting cognitive development (Boyd, 2012). Particularly, he is focused on role of culture in the development of higher mental functions, such as speech and reason in children. For instant, two children in the school working on a puzzle together and discussing where to put the pieces, after the conversation they internalize the conversation and guide themselves to solve the puzzle. Vygotsky suggested that the solution to problems can be learned by the individual and learning processes are significant for cognitive development. As a result, from Vygotsky's perspective social interaction is important for cognitive development (Thomas, 2005). Vygotsky has developed two basic principles of his theory, the zone of proximal development and

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