Apple Juice Concentration Lab Report

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Introduction
This experiment explores how the concentration of pure apple juice can affect the amount of time it takes for Jell-O to solidify. Since pure apple juice contains a high amount sugar, such as fructose and glucose, two monosaccharides, and sucrose, a disaccharide, it is predicted that adding this extra sugar into the Jell-O mixture will cause the rate of reaction to increase (Andrew). Because of the well-known collision theory, which states that a reaction occurs when molecules or atoms collide, it is understandable how increasing the concentration of a certain reactant is capable of increasing the rate of reaction. With more molecules likely to collide with one another, it makes it possible for the reaction rate to increase, or
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After reading R.J. Francois' journal, titled "Growth Kinetics of Hydroxide Flocs," it became clear how the number of particles, molecules, or atoms present in the reactants makes it more likely for a reaction to occur at a faster rate. In this study, Francois developed a procedure involving volume concentration, a similar tactic to what was used in the experiment presented in this paper. In this particular study, it was found that as the number of particles increased, the rate of the reaction increased as well (Francois, 1988). When speaking of reaction rates, it was also important to look into the affect that catalysts have on the reaction rate (Berkson, 1937). Such catalysts may be in the form of enzymes, which are proteins that are made up of amino acids (Brain, 2000). This piece of information is important when considering the chemical properties of gelatin, one of the main ingredients of Jell-O. Gelatin, too, is a protein made up of amino acids. This knowledge brought about the idea to research how the addition of monosaccharides to proteins effects the reaction rate of a chemical reaction. In 1981, Bunn and Higgins found that by increasing the number of certain monosaccharides in hemoglobin, a metalloprotein in red blood cells, the rate of reactivity increased. Based on the results of these studies, it is demonstrated that increasing the concentration of monosaccharides by a certain amount in particular solutions or mixtures can increase the rate of

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