Interlanguagepragatics And Pragmatic Competence

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2.1. InterlanguagePragmatics and Pragmatic Competence
2.1.1. Definition of pragmatics and interlanguage pragmatics
In his work, Yule (1997) explains that pragmatics is “the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms”. He details that studying pragmatics allows learners to “talk about people’s intended meanings, their assumptions, their purposes or goals, and the kind of actions that they are performing when they speak”. In other words, it’s about how people understand each other linguistically (Yule, 1997, p. 4). This definition corresponds to what is written in May’s “Pragmatics: An Introduction”, in which he says it is “a science that has to do with language and its users.” In the same work, Mey (1993)
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90). Later on, Fraser (1983) depicts pragmatic competence as “the knowledge of how an addressee determines what a speaker is saying and recognizes intended illocutionary force conveyed through subtle attitudes” (p. 30). Meanwhile, Wolfson (1989) notes that pragmatic competence involves the ability to comprehend and produce language functions that are socially appropriate both in discourse as well as in linguistic or grammatical knowledge. Similar to Wolfson, Koike (1989) defines pragmatic competence as “the speaker's knowledge and use of rules of appropriateness and politeness which indicate the way the speaker will understand and formulate speech acts”. Bialystok (1993) proposed the components of pragmatic competence, including 1) the speaker’s ability to use language for various purposes; 2) the listener’s ability to understand beyond the language and get the speaker’s real intentions (e.g. indirect speech acts, irony and sarcasm); and 3) the command of the rules by which utterances come together to create discourse. Rintell (1997) also argues that L2 learner pragmatic ability is reflected in how they produce utterances in the target language in order to convert particular intentions and how they interpret intentions communicated through the interlocutor’s

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