Essay on Importance Of Hiv As A Public Health Problem

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The rationale for this study relates to the importance of HIV as a public health problem in India; the wider context of donor funded NACP in India; the role played by counselling as a key component in addressing HIV; and the appreciation of HIV clients and counsellors as experts in their communities.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a significant public health problem in India (World Bank, 2015a). India has the world’s third largest population of people living with HIV/AIDS (2.1 million) after South Africa and Nigeria (National AIDS Control Organisation [NACO], 2014a; World health Organisation [WHO], 2015). Although India has a low adult HIV prevalence (0.3%) (WHO, 2014a), some communities in India have higher prevalence than the general population. The main reasons for this are: a) having unprotected sexual intercourse (especially anal sex) with multiple or concurrent partners (or with a partner who has multiple or concurrent partners); and b) practicing injecting drug use with unsafe needles and syringes (NACO, 2014a). The Indian government identifies those communities as high risk groups (HRG) (NACO, 2014a). These include female sex workers (FSW) with a national HIV prevalence of 2.7%; men who have sex with men (MSM) with a prevalence of 4.4%; injecting drug users (IDU) with a prevalence of 7.1% (NACO, 2014a); and transgender people (known as the Hijra in India) with a prevalence of 8.8% (NACO, 2013).
The NACP is the main…

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