Human Genome Manipulation During The 1980 's When Discoveries Of Pronuclear Microinjection Exploded

1100 Words Nov 5th, 2016 5 Pages
Human genome manipulation began in the 1980’s when discoveries of pronuclear microinjection exploded. According to Kevin Smith, in 1980 Jon Gordon, author of The Science and Ethics of Engineering the Human Germ Line, demonstrated that exogenous DNA, also known DNA that originates outside of the organism of study, could be introduced into the germline simply by the physical injection of a solution of cloned DNA into a zygote, also known as the diploid cell from the fusion of an ovum and a sperm cell (Kevin R Smith). After this landmark discovery from Jon Gordon, pronuclear microinjection, was the most widely accepted method of germline manipulation although it was outstandingly expensive (Kevin R Smith). The procedure of pronuclear microinjection consisted of filling a fine glass needle loaded with an exogenous DNA solution; then it was put under a microscope; next the needle was guided through the cytoplasm towards the zygote’s nucleus; finally the injected zygote would be inserted into the pseudopregnant female, a female intended for pregnancy (ML Houdebine). This first form of germline engineering was most established with mice, but was also carried out with other mammals including rats, rabbits, and other small farmyard animals (ML Houdebine). However, pronuclear microinjection efficiency values were reported to be significantly lower for most other mammals other than mice (R.L. Page, R.S. Canseco, C.G. Russell). According to Kevin R. Smith, in the article Gene Therapy:…

Related Documents