Hepatitis a Research Paper
Miami Lakes Educational Center
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis A virus. It may cause fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort, followed within a few days by jaundice the disease ranges in clinical severity from a mild illness lasting 1–2 weeks to a severely disabling disease lasting several months. Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can help prevent Hepatitis A. Transmission may occur by direct person-to-person contact; or from contaminated water, ice, or shellfish from contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked, but which may become contaminated during handling. Hepatitis A can affect anyone …show more content…
Three vaccines are manufactured from cell-culture-adapted HAV propagated in human fibroblasts. Following purification from cell lysates, the HAV preparation is formalin-inactivated and adsorbed to an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. One vaccine is formulated without preservative; the other two are prepared with 2-phenoxyethanol as a preservative. The fourth vaccine is manufactured from HAV purified from infected human diploid cell cultures and inactivated with formalin. This preparation is adsorbed to biodegradable, 150 nm phospholipid vesicles spiked with influenza hemaglutinin and neuramidase. These virosomes are thought to directly target influenza-primed antibody-presenting cells as well as macrophages, thus stimulating a rapid vaccine-induced B-cell and T-cell proliferation in the majority of vaccines. A combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccines has been licensed since 1996 for use in children aged one year or older in several countries. The combination vaccine is given as a three-dose series, using a 0, 1, 6 month schedule.
Hepatitis A vaccines are all highly immunogenic. Nearly 100% of adults will develop protective levels of antibody within one month after a single dose of vaccine. Similar results are obtained with children and adolescents in both developing and developed countries. The protective