Summary: A Unique Mode Of Transmission

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There is no clear predetermined linkage between a specific subtype and a unique mode of transmission. Therefore, different subtypes could have been influenced by a combination of different genetic, demographic, economic and social factors that separate the different risk groups for HIV-1. HIV is not an airborne virus and cannot be transmitted through casual contact, kissing, urine or even insect vectors [17]. The transmission is only possible if bodily fluids come in contact with a mucous membrane, damaged tissue or injected directly into the bloodstream [18]. Unprotected heterosexual intercourse is the main transmission route causing over 90% of HIV infections in adults [16]. In children, vertical transmission is the most common route for contracting the virus. …show more content…
Replacement feeding is the most effective measure to decrease transmission through breast milk, however this is not always feasible in developing countries[19]. Without any intervention, the HIV transmission rate varies between 15-45% per year [8]. Transmission routes via sharing of needles or syringe from an infected individual as well as contact with contaminated blood, blood products and other infected body fluid exchange remains a concern for hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions as well as intravenous drug users. However, safer practices in certain high-risk populations have shifted the focus of the epidemic [20]. It is estimated that 34 million children in Sub-Saharan Africa have lost one or both parents to AIDS [21]. Due to an unprecedented burden on social welfare services, these orphaned children are more likely to drop out of schools to earn for survival. This places an enormous social burden on orphaned children. The expanding poverty verty and lack of preventive awareness increase the risk of these children to contract the virus

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