Henry Fayol's Theories And Types Of Management

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1. The management theories can be defined as a collection of ideas that provides a guideline for managers to manage the organization effectively by bring the best out of employees or workers to achieve the organization’s goals. In order to achieve organization’s goals and increase productivity of employees, managers may use more than one management theory in managing the organization. Therefore, managers need to understand all the management theories and know how to apply them to get the maximum output from the employees. Actually the management theory can be divided into several types of theories. First is the classical management theory which consists of Scientific
Management Theory, Administration Management Theory and Bureaucratic
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Frank Gilbreth who was specialized in time and motion studies believed that it is important to study the methods a task is performed and find new ways to do them. While Lilian Gilbreth believed that the interest of the employees such as scheduled lunch breaks and rest periods should be fulfilled as a means of improving productivity.

Henri Fayol is the first person who recognized that the understanding of managerial functions increase the productivity of an organization. Fayol had laid down a set of 14 general principles of management and is known as the “father of management”. From these principles, Fayol’s managerial functions of planning, leading, organizing and controlling are now a fundamental part of modern management concept.

Bureaucratic Management theory by Max Weber had split the organization into hierarchies that differentiate between authority and power plus owning clearly defined procedures and rules to manage employees in organization to achieve goals. There are three types of authority highlighted by Weber which is the traditional authority, charismatic authority and rational-legal authority. However the Hierarchy Power Structure is not perfect because it gives all the power to the upper level
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When the organization seek appropriate goals, it is say that effectiveness is achieved. In other words, “doing the right thing”. While efficiency is attain when the organization able to produce a given output by using the fewest inputs or resources, therefore no resource is wasted. It means “doing things right”. Theoretically, the organization is success if both effectiveness and efficiency is achieve. The four functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning is the laying down of objectives and explaining the actions essential to achieve those objectives. It is like create a general strategy for reaching the desired goals. Planning can provide a direction for organization to attain their goals, minimize waste and redundancy plus decrease the impact of change. In the same time, planning has its weaknesses too. Planning may create rigidity, cannot displace distinct and creativity and it strengthen success which may lead to failure. Organizing is the procedure of deciding the job to be done, who will carry out the job and how the job will be administrated and coordinated. Employees are able to focus more on their work through organizing because the work is divided according to the nature and similarity of task. A good organizing process can bring the organization to achieve their goals

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