Gestational Diabetes Research Paper

1006 Words 4 Pages
Teaching patients about gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before and during pregnancies are both very important. It would be great if all patients could be informed about GDM before they become pregnant so they could get a healthy start to their pregnancy and possibly prevent GDM from occurring. It is also important for patients to know how to live a healthy lifestyle before and during pregnancy. The nurse may be the first to provide information to their patients and can play a key role in helping people prevent GDM. The nurse can do this by assessing, screening, and patient teaching early on.
What is GDM? GDM is defined as a condition where women who were not previously diabetic will start to show glucose intolerance during pregnancy.
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Women who have a family history of diabetes should be screened at the first visit and also throughout their pregnancy. Screening is usually done between 24 and 28 weeks. Early screening and detection of GDM may prevent unnecessary complications. Women with GDM are at risk for preeclampsia, fetal macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and possible cesarean delivery (Moyer, 2014). Women who are not at high risk for GDM will be given the 50g one hour glucose screening test. For those who are at high risk for GDM, The American Diabetes Association recommends the 72g two hour screening test needs to be done. If their screening results are abnormal, additional testing will need to be done (Ladewig, 2014). GDM is diagnosed if the fasting glucose is equal to or greater than 92mg/dl. The 1 hour glucose is equal to or greater than 180mg/dl, and the 2 hour glucose is equal to or greater than 153 (Ladewig, 2014).
There are many different factors that put women at risk for GDM. Risk factors for GDM are obesity with a body mass index greater than 25kg/m2, poor diet and nutrition habits, physically inactive, over 30 years old, history of previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and ethnicity. Ethnic groups that are at high risk of developing GDM are Hispanic, Native American, South or East Asia, African American, or Pacific Island decent (Moyer,

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