Explain The Major Laboratory Criteria For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes

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3. Define DIABETES MELLITUS Discuss the incidence of diabetes and “prediabetes” in the United States

Diabetes mellitus (usually shortened to “diabetes”) is a disorder of insulin action or secretion (usually both) that result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia). In addition to the 8.3% of U.S. population who meet the criteria for diagnosis, another 35% of American adults have “prediabetes” -high blood glucose but not high enough to allow diagnosis of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus can reasonably be called a worldwide epidemic. The World Health Organization reported in 2011 that nearly 350 million people were diabetic. In the United States, over 25 million people - 8.3% of the U.S. population- had diabetes in 2011, and incidence is rising. One- third of these are not aware that they are diabetic. Among those over 65 years old, 27% are diabetic. The social and financial cost is stupefying: diabetes is the leading cause of chronic renal failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness; and is a major contributor to the epidemic of atherosclerosis that accounts for virtually all adult cardiovascular disease and strokes.
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Explain the major laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes

In non-diabetic healthy, people two-hour fasting blood glucose is tightly controlled in the range of 70 - 110 mg/dL. This is called the normal range or reference range, which vary slightly from one laboratory to another according to technical factors. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), a diagnosis of diabetes is warranted if one of the three following criteria is met:
1. Classic symptoms - increased urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), and unexplained weight loss - plus random (any) blood glucose greater than or equal to 200

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