Diabetes mellitus (usually shortened to “diabetes”) is a disorder of insulin action or secretion (usually both) that result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia). In addition to the 8.3% of U.S. population who meet the criteria for diagnosis, another 35% of American adults have “prediabetes” -high blood glucose but not high enough to allow diagnosis of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus can reasonably be called a worldwide epidemic. The World Health Organization reported in 2011 that nearly 350 million people were diabetic. In the United States, over 25 million people - 8.3% of the U.S. population- had diabetes in 2011, and incidence is rising. One- third of these are not aware that they are diabetic. Among those over 65 years old, 27% are diabetic. The social and financial cost is stupefying: diabetes is the leading cause of chronic renal failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness; and is a major contributor to the epidemic of atherosclerosis that accounts for virtually all adult cardiovascular disease and strokes.
4. …show more content…
Explain the major laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes
In non-diabetic healthy, people two-hour fasting blood glucose is tightly controlled in the range of 70 - 110 mg/dL. This is called the normal range or reference range, which vary slightly from one laboratory to another according to technical factors. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), a diagnosis of diabetes is warranted if one of the three following criteria is met:
1. Classic symptoms - increased urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), and unexplained weight loss - plus random (any) blood glucose greater than or equal to 200