Essay on E Variance : Dimensions Of Government And Governance
Functions of Government or Other Entity
One of the first distinctions of the two paradigms is the change in function of government. Traditionally, government is the exclusive actor – determines the problem, creates policy/programs and delivers services to address the problem (Salamon, 2002; Frahm & Martin, 2009; Campbell, 2015). It serves as the dominant entity regulating and providing the direct delivery of goods and services by governmental offices or civil servants (Salamon, 2002).
The government’s function shifts in the governance paradigm to one of many actors (Frahm & Martin, 2009). The functions are no longer solely the government’s responsibility. Different entities (public or private) deliver services utilizing the most appropriate tools and instruments to address the problem identified (Salamon, 2002; Frahm & Martin, 2009). Salamon (2002) refers to this as the shift in unit of analysis from program or agency to tool.
Whereas in the conventional paradigm, the centralized system creates a “ command and control” emphasis to operationalize its programs; governance shares the authority and decentralizes the system, encouraging “negotiation and persuasion” (Salamon, 2002; Frahm & Martin, 2009). A hierarchy is evident in the traditional approach, as the authority to explore, invest, or address an issue remains solely with the government from a top-down…