Chlorine Solution

1152 Words 5 Pages
At the beginning of the 1900s chlorine started to be used as a disinfectant in water. Water had to be chlorinated because of waterborne pathogens which would then go and cause deadly diseases which flourished in our pipes and water ways and infected millions of people. But ever since the disinfection of water the most of these diseases have been eliminated in first world countries but is still a big problem in 3rd world problems. (Calomiris, 1998)
Chlorine is the most used disinfectant around the world for water treatment, but with that there still is problems like harmful by-products. In this issues it will be assessed if chlorine is the best option for disinfecting our water and if there is any better options when taking care of our water.
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H_2 O↔H^++〖HO〗^-. The H+ then goes and reduces at the cathode to form hydrogen gas2H^++2e^-→H_2. Then at the end sodium hydroxide solution exits the cell which also contains sodium chloride which is then separated and the sodium chloride is re-entered into the cell. (Clark, 2007)
As seen in figure 1 there are three different types of chlorines used in disinfecting water the most common used is chloramine, chloramine is a compound that contains both chlorine and ammonia and is placed in water as monochloramine which is at a level which is still safe to drink but kills of germs and lets the water to be germ free while travelling I the pipes. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).
The other common disinfectant is chlorine gas, chlorine gas is a harmful gas and was even used a chemical weapons in previous wars. Therefore safety restrictions are high when using chlorine gas being it is corrosive and at large doses fatal. When chlorine is added to water it forms hypochlorous acid, hydronium and a free chlorine ion. Cl_2+2H_2 O ↔HOCl+H_3 O^3+〖Cl〗^- This is an equilibrium reaction meaning the forward reaction and back reaction are happening at an equal rate, so to get a better yield of hypochlorous acid is to increase the pH to remove hydronium ions then using le Chateliers principle the reaction will favour the forward reaction to produce
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Although chlorine destroy pathogenic microorganisms that can then cause diseases within humans, these disinfectants go and create by-products that can also be harmful to humans as well. These by-products are formed through the disinfectants reacting and oxidising organic matter.
The main group of by-products are trihalomethanes (THM), this consists of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). These THM’s have been linked to being carcinogenic a study taken by Dr Mercola showed that males who smoked and had drank chlorinated water for 40 years had double the risk of bladder cancer than those who didn’t. According to Dr Mercola chlorinated water also increases the risk of many other diseases within the human body just to name a few they are like kidney failure, asthma in young children and even an increase of heart attack. Dr Mercola also suggest that chlorinated water can lead to fertility problems within male and female patients and also lead to an increase chance of a miscarriage. (Mercola,

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