Ultrasonography

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Ultrasonography is an excellent modality for examining abdominal structures including the location and dimensions of canine kidneys (Remichi et al., 2014). It involves a non-invasive procedure for examination of kidney diseases (Sampaio and Araujo, 2002) and offers advantages over radiography as there are no side effects of radiation and contrast agents (Nyland et al., 1995).
Canine kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal region of the abdomen around T12-L1 for right kidney and L1-L3 for left kidney (Burk and Feeney, 2003). The kidneys perform various important functions in the body such as excreting waste products, maintaining homeostasis, blood production and utilization of mineral
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Therefore, there is a need investigate the relationship between the kidney dimensions and modified body mass index (mBMI) in Nigerian Indigenous Dogs.
1.3 Justifications
A better understanding of this breed necessitates establishing data such as kidney dimensions as well as the modified body mass index (mBMI) which both have clinical relevance. Kidney volume can also serve as a prognostic biomarker in monitoring progress in kidney diseases (Sharma et al., 2017).
Knowledge of the relationship between kidney dimensions and modified body mass index (mBMI) will assist clinicians in the accurate morphological diagnosis of kidney disorders in dogs, as inference on kidney function can be deduced from the evaluation of modified body mass index (mBMI) in Nigerian Indigenous Dogs. This relationship is also very useful in kidney transplantation, as it gives the surgeon the best transplant match between the donor’s kidney and recipient's metabolic demands (Oh et al.,
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2.1.1 Anatomy of Canine Kidney
The location of kidneys in a Dog is based on the animal’s age, posture, and general body condition (Burk and Feeney, 2003), which are usually found in the retroperitoneal space of the abdomen (Jeong et al., 2016). Its appearance can be appreciated in this context, based on gross and sonographic appearance.
2.1.1.1 Gross appearance
Kidneys are usually a pair of brownish red bean-shaped organs situated on either side of the vertebral column. The kidney features from the utmost comprises of the convex lateral surface and concave medial surface, and the hilum that connect ureter, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves, then irrelative adrenal gland at the top, while the covering tissues are made up of three layers namely renal fascia, perirenal fat capsule and fibrous capsule. Renal fascia is the outermost layer engross with dense fibrous connective tissue that secures the kidney and the adrenal gland in place and perirenal fat capsule is a fatty tissue that cushions the kidney against external forces and it very important as change in body adiposity greatly affects it, while fibrous capsule is a transparent capsule that covered the kidney’s surrounding including perirenal fat,

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