Broadbent's Bottleneck Theory Of Attention
The analysis shows an increase (3.1 second increase on the mean time) in the times to respond with the ink colour on condition 1, where the words had colour connotations.
Using the paired samples t-test against this data (t(19) = 4.937; p = .0; d = .1.104) we can conclude the null hypothesis was rejected and that the results were statically significant.
The results of the present experiment showed that there was an increase in the time taken to read the words with colour connotations compared with the colour-neutral words. Response times in condition 1 were statistically significantly different from condition 2. This analysis corresponds with previous experiments conducted by Stroop (as cited in Stroop, 1935) and subsequent Stroop effect studies. The automatic process related with reading that is evident in the present experiment correlates with the research conducted by Schneider and Shiffrin (as cited in Shiffrin and Schneider, 1977), that overlearned actions can interfere with attending to other tasks. Therefore results are indicative of automatic processing taking place, as opposed to controlled processing. The participants read a colour related word and even though the instructions request their attention should be focused on the ink colour the automatic process of reading and interpreting is initiated, therefore …show more content…
Future research should be conducted with a larger group of participants and should also try to mimic real word situations to remove limitations of ecological validity. Where possible exact timing, such as by a computer, should be used to remove possible human error on response timing.
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References * In D. Miell, A. Phoenix, & K. Thomas (Eds.), Mapping Psychology (2nd ed., pp.3-56). Milton Keynes; The Open University * In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, G. Lindzey, Handbook of social psychology, Volume 1 (5th ed). New Jersey; John Wiley & Sons * In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, G. Lindzey, Handbook of social psychology, Volume 2 (5th ed). New Jersey; John Wiley & Sons
Appendix 1: Word lists
Appendix 2: Instructions
Appendix 3: Consent form
Appendix 4: Raw