A Short Note On Protein Synthesis Between Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes
The different fundamental organisation of genetic material and organelles between eukaryotes and prokaryotes leads to dissimilar processes of protein synthesis. The larger eukaryotes have a more intricate pathway associated with protein synthesis, due to both the biochemical structure of organelles and enzymes, and also the transport of genetic material within cell. In this essay I hope to explore the differences of gene expression between these two types of cells.
A key difference between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes is that Eukaryotes contain monocistronic mRNA molecules, meaning that the molecule will only code for cistron, and henceforth one protein. Conversely, Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic. This means that one mRNA molecule codes for multiple cistrons, resulting in the production of many proteins upon translation. Proteins produced from this polycistronic mRNA will likely have related function, for example each cistron may code for the subunits of the quaternary structure of a globular protein.
Eukaryotes contain non coding sequences within their DNA known as introns, while these are absent in Prokaryotes. In order for translation to form the correct sequence for the corresponding polypeptide, eukaryotic mRNA introns must be spliced using a collective of enzymes known as the spliceosome. Through the process of alternative splicing, multiple proteins can be coded for via a single nucleotide…