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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are the five main factors that determine how a wine will taste?

1. the grape Variety used
2. the Environment in which it is grown (climate and weather, soil and slope)
3. the Care with which the grapes are grown and harvested
4. How the wine is made
5. how wine is Matured (including bottle-age)

Can factors that affect quality have a cost effect, and influence the final selling price of a bottle of wine?


Name five environmental needs a vine has in order to produce a crop of ripe, healthy grapes.

1. carbon dioxide (CO2)
2. sunlight
3. water
4. warmth
5. nutrients
What does climate describe?
Climate describes what weather conditions (temperatures, rainfall, sunshine) we may expect in a typical year.
What are weather conditions?
Weather conditions vary from year to year. Examples are unusually cool or hot temperatures, late frosts, hail, drought or floods.

Cabernet Sauvignon needs a lot of heat to ripen fully.
What will wine from under-ripened grapes taste like?

excessively sour, astringent, bitter and lacking in fruit flavors

Pinot Noir and Sauvignon Blanc prefer moderate or cool climate.
What will wine from over-ripened grapes taste like?

Refreshing fruit character and acidity is lost, and the wine is dominated by unpleasant jammy or raisiny cooked flavors. Or, the wine may simply taste bland.
_____ grapes can make interesting wines in hot, moderate and cool climates.

In general, would wines with more alcohol, fuller body, more tannin and less acidity be from a hot climate or a cool climate?

Hot climate
In general, would wines with less alcohol, lighter body, less tannin and more acidity be from a hot climate or a cool climate?
Cool climate
What part of the grape contains bitter oils?
Which two parts of the grape contain tannins?
Stalk and skin
What part of the grape contains water, sugar and acids?
What part of the grape contains color and flavoring compounds?
Why would a grower remove bunches of perfectly good grapes from a vine before they have ripened?
This reduces yields, but ensures that the remaining bunches have a better chance of ripening fully and evenly. The quality of grapes and resulting wine is improved, but such activities increase production costs.
Why is sunlight crucial to winemaking?
Sunlight allows the grape to combine carbon dioxide and water into sugar. These fermented sugars become alcohol. Without sunlight, there's no grape sugars; without grape sugars, there's no wine.
What causes grapes to become bloated, with big crops, but the flavors and sugars are diluted, resulting in wine with less alcohol, body and flavor?
The grapes received too much water, either from rainfall, the ground or irrigation.
What kind of vineyards are best for growing grapes if you have high rainfall (as in much of Europe)?
vineyards on slopes, or soils with chalk or gravel which allow water to drain away quickly
If the weather is too cold or too hot, what happens to sugar production?
It can slow, or even stop.
In what temperate zone do we find most of the world's vineyards?
between 30 and 50 degrees from the equator
Are dry, stony soils generally warmer or cooler than wet clay soils?

Grapevines need a tiny amount of nutrients from the soil, however poorer soils generally result in better quality grapes. T/F?

What are the two main grapegrowing factors that affect the quality and style of the grapes?
Vineyard activities (pruning, limiting number of bunches, sunlight positioning, etc) and yield control.

What are some pests and diseases that are bad for the production of healthy grapes?

Birds and insects, and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses.
What are the two types of harvesting?
Machine-harvesting (shakes grapes off their stems; requires flat sites) and hand-harvesting (must be done in steep sites, and when whole bunches are needed.
What is the most important part of the winemaking process?

When _____ feed on sugars in the grape juice, they produce alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat, and change the flavors of grape juice into wine.


What color is the flesh of almost all wine grape varieties?

Grapes for white wines are usually crushed to break the skins before they are pressed to separate the juice from the skins. T/F?
Why are white wines usually fermented at low temperatures (typically 15-20C)?
to preserve delicate fruit aromas

As opposed to white wine which uses juice only, red wines uses both the juice and the skins in the fermenting vessel. T/F?

Fermentation for red wine takes place at a higher temperature than for white wine: usually _____ degrees Celsius.

Wine is kept in contact with the skins for _____ of color, tannin and flavors from the skins.

After fermentation and extraction, _____ goes directly into barrels.
free run wine

After extraction, free run wine is drawn off, and the skins are pressed to yield a further quality of wine called _____, which has higher levels of tannin.

press wine

French oak tends to give _____ and _____ flavors and smoother tannins.

toast, nutty

American oak tends to give _____ and _____ flavors and harsher tannins.

sweet coconut, vanilla
Maturation can take place with oxygen (in oak), or without oxygen (in cement or stainless steel vats, or in bottles). What is the purpose of maturation?
Maturation allows flavors to develop though chemical reactions. (For example, maturation in oak softens tannins in red wine and can cause flavors such as toffee, fig, hazelnut.)

In bottles, in the absence of oxygen, the fresh fruit aromas of young wines change into _____.

cooked fruit, vegetal and animal notes (wet leaves, mushroom, leather)
In non-ageworthy wines, the fruit flavors fade away and animal and vegetal notes that develop can be unpleasant.
In the vineyard, the factors affecting the cost of a bottle of wine are _____.
1. the cost of vineyard land itself
2. the degree to which the vineyard work is mechanized
3. the cost and availability of labor/equipment
4. yield size and grape selection
In the winery, the factors affecting the cost of a bottle of wine are _____.
1. winery equipment and efficiency of equipment use
2. cost of barrels or other oak flavoring
3. aging, which requires expensive storage and ties up capital
One the wine is made, what are the final factors that can affect cost?
packaging, distribution and sale (including exchange rates, taxes, etc)
What is the ultimate factor that determines the selling price of a bottle of wine?
the price a consumer is willing to pay
(If the quality doesn't match the expensive production costs, it will not sell.)