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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government.
Martin Luther
A German clergyman who challenged the authority of the RCC over the sale of indulgences, justification by faith and other doctrinal points; leader of the Protestant Reformation.
Christopher Columbus
Convinced Ferdinand and Isabela that he could sail west to find Asia; inadvertently discovered a new world without ever knowing it.
Karl Marx
Believed that socialism could be brought about through a violent revolution and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Once this was accomplished a classless society would develop and the state would whither away. Developed the concept of communism.
Johannes Kepler
Furthered the Copernican Theory by developing the "Laws of Planetary Motion" stating that planetary orbits are elliptical and the closeness to the sun determines its speed.
Otto Von Bismarck
"Iron and Blood" Chancellor of Prussia who "single-handedly" unified the German states into a powerful country by using the Machiavellian tactics of war, deceit and manipulation.
A government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure; a government controlled by religious leaders.
Ferdinand Magellan
The first man to lead an expedition around the world; he died in the Philippines.
Glorious Revolution
A period in English history where a bloodless overthrow of a king led to the establishment of a true constitutional monarchy where the monarchs ruled on the consent of the governed.
Benito Mussolini
Leader of the Fascist Party in Italy; allied with Hitler during World War II.
Cold War
The state of diplomatic hostility between the US and the USSR inthe decades following World War II.
Henry VIII, England
Tudor monarch; reformed the church of England by breaking away from the RCC for political rather than religious reasons; had six wives.
John Locke
Author of "The Two Treaties of Government" which outlines the ideas of popular sovereignty, equality, limited government and natural rights; his ideas were borrowed by T. Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.
Elizabeth I, England
One of the greatest Tudor monarchs; led England through a Golden Age; defeated the Spanish Armada; and launced explorations to the New World.
A division or break; such as in the Christian Church in 1054 when the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church was formed or when rival popes claimed the power to lead the RCC or during the Protestant Reformation.
Simon Bolivar
Known in South America as "The Liberador"; led Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru to their independence from Spain.
Columbian Exchange
The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer that developed the heliocentric theory of the universe.
The everyday language of people in a region or country.
Galileo Galilei
Italian mathematician who developed the theory of falling objects, discovered Jupiter and the moons around it; publically proclaimed the Copernican Theory as correct; brought before the Inquisition and found quilty of heresy.
Limited Monarchy/
Constitutional Monarchy
A form of government where the king must answer to a legislative body and to the people.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during the Great Depression and WWII; developed the New Deal to get the US out of the Depression; one of the Big Three along with Stalin and Churchill in planning the rebuilding of Europe following WWII.
The adoption of a people's culture by another group of people; a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
Leonardo da Vinci
One of the big three Italian Renaissance artists; painter, inventor, and scientist; painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper".
Josef Stalin
Successor of Lenin in the USSR; led the Soviet Union through the Five Year Plans, Collectivization, the Great Purges, the Depression and WWII.
Vladimir Lenin
Adapted Marxism to fit Russia; led the Bolshevik Party through the Russian Revolution; successfully brought communism to Russia.
Johannes Gutenberg
Spread the ideas of the Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution with his invention of moveable type and the printing press.
Mohondas Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement from Great Britain; known for his non-violent approach to protest such as fasting and civil disobedience.
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the National Socialist Party in Germany; became ruler of Germany leading it through WWII; believed in a master race and attempted to commit genocide against the Jews of Europe.
American Revolution
When 13 colonies in the new world sought their independence from Britain. Colonists were influenced by the Enlightenment and were upset by the lack of representation in Parliament when Britain began taxing them following the French and Indian War.
Mao Tse-tung
Mao Zedong
Led the Long March in China where he developed his concept of communism; following WWI led the communist revolution in China and ruled until his death.
A period of time when change occurs slowly.
Issac Newton
British mathematician/physicist who synthesised the work of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo by developing the laws of gravity and inertia; developed calculus and the prism.
Scientific Revolution
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Age of Exploration
A period of time during the 15th and 16th centuries when great voyages to find alternate routes to Asia were made and new territories were discovered and claimed. An early example of imperialism.
An economic or political condition where people or entire countries rely on the cooperation of others
A form of government where the people elect those that will govern them; an indirect or representative democracy.
One of the big three Italian Renaissance artists; poet, sculptor, painter, and architect; known for the "Pieta" and "David"; painted the ceiling and alter wall of the Sistine Chapel.
Baron de Montesquieu
A French philosophe who believed that the best form of government was one in which the powers of government are separated into three independent branches.
An area where one group of people have control over many different ethnic groups, cultures, religions, and languages.
Cultural Diffusion
The spreading of goods and ideas through trade, travel and war.
A period of time when change occurs rapidly; may be brought about by war or could occur peacefully.
An advanced society with economic diversification, architectural style, organized religion, complex institutions, record keeping and advanced technology
Napoleon Bonaparte
Conquered much of Europe between 1805-1812; did much to spread the ideas of the French Revolution and spur nationalism; was defeated and exiled to Elba and St. Helena.
Absolute Monarchy
A form of government where the king or queen has complete control; usually relies on the belief in the divine right of kings.
Created an advanced civiliztion in the Andes Mountains of South America; used quipos to record major events.
An economic system bases on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
An economic system in which all means of production and distribution are owned by the government; private property does not exist.
Expeditions in which medieval Christain warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Jose San Martin
Led Argentina and Chile to their independence from Spain; freed Peru along with Bolivar.
The belief that people should be loyal mainly to the people with whom they share a culture and history--rather than to a king or empire. Pride in ones' culture, traditions, and heritage.
An 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
A political movement that promotes and extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, glorification of the state and a dictatorial one-party rule.
Ethnic Cleansing
A policy of murder and other acts of brutality by which a country rids itself of undesirables, usually due to religion; such as in Serbia and Iraq in the 1990's.
Government control over every aspect of public and private life.
French philosophe who challenged the divine right of kings and called for freedom of religion and speech/press. Known for his attacks on intolerance.
A political system in which nobles are grated the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
Established an advanced civilization on the Yucatan Peninsula; conquered by the Aztecs who absorbed much of their culture and architecture.
The systematic killing of an entire race of people.
An economic system in which the major factors of production are owned by the public (government) and operate for the welfare of all.
In classical Greece, the glorification of the human body and mind; in the Renaissance an intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
A mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during World War II.
Industrial Revolution
The shift, beginning in England, from making goods by hand to making them by machine.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially; such as during the Age of Exploration or during the 18th and 19th centuries. (Empire building)
John Calvin
Leader of the Swiss Reformation; believed in theocracy and predestination.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver by exporting more than they imported and by creating colonies to supply raw materials and markets.
The fascist policies of the National Socialist German Worker's party, based totalitarianism, a belief in racial superiority, and state control of industry.
Developed an advanced civilization in central Mexico; used human sacrifices to appease their gods.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Former slave who became the leader of the Haitian Revolution against the French for their independence.
A 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
A period of European history, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain; led GB through WWII; one of the Big Three along with Stalin and FDR; coined the term "Iron Curtain" in reference to Eastern Europe when it fell to Soviet domination.
French Revolution
A civil war in a Western European country during the late 18th century over excessive taxation, social inequality and absolutism. Saw the beheading of the king and the establishment of a republic.
Russian Revolution
A series of events from Bloody Sunday to the Bolshevik Revolution that saw this Eastern European country turn from a czarist government to a communistic one.
A government controlled directly by its citizens.
Wage-earning laborers
Commercial Revolution
A period when the manner in which countries trade changed rapidly; spurred on by the Age of Exploration and mercantilism.
In French translates to "middle class"; according to Karl Marx they were the factory owners.
Mansa Musa
1. Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His hajj through Egypt to Mecca established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Bantu Migrations
A movement of sub-Saharan peoples through the 10th century; the wave reached the east African interior. Taking with them knowledge of iron, herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. Others were moving to the African coast. Thus creating coastal trading ports.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou. The power to rule China comes from "Heaven", the chief diety, who also has the prerogative to take power away if the ruler fails to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects. Justification for the dynastic cycle.
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic treasure ships (junks) through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
James Cook
An English explorer, navigator and cartographer. Ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy, he was the first to map Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.
Samuel de Champlain
A sailor, he also came to be respected as a talented navigator, mapmaker, and founder of Quebec City. He was also played an integral role opening North America up to French trade, especially the fur trade.
Suleyman (Suleiman)the Magnificent
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, (r. 1520 to 1566). In the Islamic world, he is known as the Lawgiver, deriving from his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system. Within the empire, he was known as a fair ruler and an opponent of corruption. As well as being a capable goldsmith and distinguished poet, he was also a great patron of artists and philosophers, overseeing the golden age of the Ottoman Empire's cultural development.
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia (r. 1682-1725). He carried out a policy of "Westernization" after completing a European tour. He also carried out a policy of expansion that transformed Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power by gaining an important “window to the west” on the Baltic Sea.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Appointed Shogun by the emperor in 1603 and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). He brought the whole country under tight control, cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo strengthening feudalism in Japan. He promoted foreign trade by establishing relations with the English and the Dutch. He brought peace to Japan therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.
Sun Yat-sen
A Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the "father of modern China". He played an instrumental role in the eventual collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. He was the first provisional president when the Republic of China (ROC) was founded in 1912.
Kamal Ataturk
An army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. He embarked on a major program of reforms in the political, economic and cultural aspects of life in Turkey.
Mikhail Gorbachev
The last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as well as head of state of the USSR, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. His attempts at reform, perestroika and glasnost, as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan, contributed to the end of the Cold War, and also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
Nikita Khruschev
First secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953–64) and premier of the Soviet Union (1958–64) whose policy of de-Stalinization had widespread repercussions throughout the communist world. In foreign policy he pursued a policy of “peaceful coexistence” with the capitalist West after the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
Indira Gandhi
The Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was India's first and to date only female prime minister. She introduced economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity.
Golda Meir
Prime Minister of Israel 1969-1974. She was described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics and led Israel through the turbulent years of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Taiping Rebellion
A large-scale revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China from 1850 to 1864. The theocratic and militaristic regime instituted several social reforms, including strict separation of the sexes, abolition of foot binding, land socialization, and the suppression of private trade. The rebellion was eventually put down by the Qing army aided by French and British forces. With an estimated death toll of between 20 and 30 million due to warfare and resulting starvation, this civil war ranks among history's deadliest conflicts.