Newtonian Worldview

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Introduction
In Western culture, ancient philosophical studies have been rooted in Hellenism tradition what Plato and Aristotle contributed to. Their contribution has valued since it provided theoretical foundation of inductive and deductive reasoning that is essential to gain knowledge. During the middle age, a role of traditional philosophy was limited to theological discourse mostly, biblical studies.
After middle age, the role of philosophy has reexamined by an influential French philosopher Descartes through the meditation; “that implies for Descartes a corresponding reformation of all the sciences, because in his opinion they are only non-self-sufficient members of the one all-inclusive science, and this is philosophy” (Husserl, 1982,
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One of the examples is the Copernican revolution in the 16th century attributed to Copernicus and Galilei, and Newton that changed our viewpoint on Cosmology from geocentrism into heliocentrism. In art history, Caravaggio in the 17th century, a famous artist from Milano, Italy; he tried to connect Roman Catholic and Orthodox Catholic tradition by portraying Popes and Patriarchs together. Another example in recent might be Quantum physics which enables us to conduct anew research based on microscopic approach differentiated from Newtonian world-view. This new approach in Physics that developed by Planck, Einstein and Heisenberg has affected a variety of related fields like micro-biology, neuroscience, and other applied science disciplines. One of the greatest social scientists, Karl Marx famous for penning Das Kapita, presented a new viewpoint of Socialism on socio-historical development; his worldview has been a tremendous impact to global societies. More evidence is found in a broad sense, Enlightenment was a philosophic movement with emphasis on science and rationalism while Romanticism values arts, religion, minds and morality during the 18th century. Moreover, a view of Modernism contradicts the understanding of Post-modernism viewpoint. Following from that idea, the viewpoint with respect to understanding entire set of knowledge is also critical; there are three …show more content…
This type of ontological viewpoint will be easily explained by the well-known concept so-called a “paradigm” coined by Thomas Kuhn. According to Kuhn, a paradigm must be set in stone prior to a theory. In other words, a theory relies on a basic understanding of research processes within the context of normal science. However, it is possible that a new theory which doesn’t fit into the context of normal science. The ‘normal science’ means research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice (Kuhn, 1970, p.10). This is true that normal science becomes mainstreamed and challenged in the process of scientific revolution. Even though Kuhnian perspective is not originally designed for social science, his worldview was heavily influenced to social scientists owing to a transformative power of his

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