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31 Cards in this Set

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Inherited Characteristics

are those that are passed down by your parents and are found in your genes

e.g.big nose, big ears, eye colour, hair colour

Acquired characteristics

are traits that are not passed down but instead "acquired/learned" since birth.

e.g. body mass can be changed by an adjustment to the diet, scar, skills, length of your hair, pierced ears


DNA molecule is made up of nucleotides. DNA as a genes controls production of protein and is responsible for characteristics. The material inside the nucleus of cells, carrying the genetic information of a living being.


the process of fertilising an egg, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form zygote.


are the reproductive cells used during sexual reproduction to produce a new organism called a zygote. The male gamete is called sperm. The female gamete is called an egg or ova.


The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control eating, movement, and reproduction.





a thread-like structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.


Genes are sections or segments of DNA that are carried on to the chromosomes and determine specific human characteristics, such as height or hair colour. Genes are made of DNA, and different patterns of A, T, G, and C code for their structures for making things your body needs to function (like the enzymes to digest food or the pigment that gives your eyes their colour). As your cells duplicate (mitosis), they pass this genetic information to the new cells.segments of DNA located on chromosomes that exist in alternative forms called alleles.

nucleotide bases

DNA carries its instructions as coded messages using just four different bases.

base pairs

A base pair is one of the pairs A-T or C-G. Notice that each base pair consists of a purine and a pyrimidine. Each pair of bases is held together by hydrogen bonds. There are four different bases in DNA: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C)

crossing over

A process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material.

continuous variation

continuous variation is a variation that has no limits on the value that can occur within a population. A line graph is used to represent continuous variation.

e.g.height, weight, heart rate, finger length

discontinuous variation

discontinuous variation is a variation that has distinct groups for organisms to belong to. A bar graph is used to represent discontinuous variation. Here there is no range or inbetweens.

e.g. tongue rolling, finger print, eye colour, blood groups.


your phenotype refers to your appearance. The observable characteristics of an organism.


your genotype refers to the alleles that you have. the full set of genes it possesses.


A mutation is a change in a gene or a chromosome. It can cause a change in a chromosome. A Mutagen is an agent of substance that can bring about a permanent alteration to the physical composition of a DNA gene such that the genetic message is changed.

(chromosome and gene)



an agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, which causes genetic mutation.


The stronger version of a pair of alleles. Dominant alleles show their effect even if there is only one copy in the gene, for example the allele for brown eyes.


When the allele of a gene shows its effect only if there are two copies in the gene, for example the allele for blue eyes.


Different form of the same gene. In humans, alleles of particular genes come in pairs, and our characteristics are determined by the combination of alleles we have.


carriers carries the disease and pass it on to their offspring


An individual who carries two of the same alleles for a certain gene.


An individual who carries two different alleles for a particular gene.


When the alleles of a gene are expressed equally and neither is dominant or recessive. If both alleles are dominant, it's called codominance.

X and Y chromosome


sex-linked characteristics



an organelle, present in the cytoplasm, that links amino acids into proteins. Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell