The Biological Codes Of The Genetic Acid And DNA

2174 Words 9 Pages
The biological instructions that make each species unique is a code often referred to as Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. In every cell in an organism DNA can be found in the cell’s nucleus. mRNA a replication of DNA leaves the cell’s nucleus and journeys to the mitochondria. Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T) are the four coded chemical bases that the DNA uses to store information. Three of these bases code for a triplet of a codon. DNA’s four chemical bases each have a pair; A with T and C with G. Each base pair is also attached to a sugar and phosphate molecule. A nucleotide is the combined base, sugar and phosphate molecule. The double helix is nucleotides arranged into two long strands that form the spiral of the double …show more content…
This can be physical traits such as height or hair colour as well as complex disease susceptibilities (Genetic Alliance.org, 2014). The human body consists of approximately 25, 000 genes that make each person an individual not one person in the world has the exact same DNA as anybody else. Chromosomes are made up of a single strand of DNA which is made up of a long strand of many genes. Genes are created from lots of proteins, constructed from a minimum of 50 amino acids. One Amino acid is coded from one codon made from three chemical bases and a nuclear tide. Humans have 23 chromosomes in each cell, 46 chromatids in total 23 from each parent. Twenty-two chromosomes are the same in both males and females. The last chromosome is what determines the sex of the organism, females have two X chromosomes while males and one X and one Y chromosome. With approximately 25, 000 genes it is inevitable to have some that are altered. Some alteration in an unimportant gene will have a minor effect however a mutation with an important gene so that is doesn’t work properly or is missing altogether can have grim. This causes genetic disease which can be inherited and passed down through families however it can also happen at random. Genetic diseases can be inherited because the mutations accrue in the germ cells of the body which are involved in passing on genetic information. However genetic diseases can also occur at random with no family history deriving from changes in the DNA somatic cells. Mutations that can occur include; deletion, substitution and intersection. An estimated 8 million children per year around the world are born with either diseases or disorders cause by the genes of their parents. That is approximately 6% of all births are born with some sort of genetic disorder. The most common genetic diseases include; heart

Related Documents