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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the restrictions and possible actions of the toes?
restrictions- mainly bony

possible actions- flexion, extension, hyperextension, A22, A24 (spreading)
General Differences in foot (3):
1) length of bones- affects jumping, locomotion (ie longer calcaneus would help a dancer)

2) width of foot- affects balance, base of support

3) length of foot- longer (more effecient), shorter (less effecient)
What are the two types of metatarsal lengths?
1) squared- ideal, provides stable base for balance

2) sloped- creates unstable base, contributes to supination
What is Morton's Short Toe?
short 1st metatarsal and/or long 2nd metatarsal
What kinds of problems would a dancers with Morton's Short Toe experience?
-unstable balance
-contributes to pronation or supination on demi
-callous formation (over head of 2nd metatarsal
-possible pain/inflammation
-tendency toward ankle sprains
What is Hallux Valgus? What are the causes?
lateral displacement of great toe, often with accompanying varus of 1st metatarsal (distal segment furthur from midline)

walking turned out, habitual pronation, on pointe too soon, too small shoes, etc.
What is a Flat Transvese/Metatarsal Arch? What are the causes?
flattened, widened, forefoot (sometimes with lateral bulge), you can especially see difference from a posterier view

ligamentous laxity, barefoot dancing?, hereditary
What is a Hammer Toe? What are the causes?
hyperextended hallux or toe with flexed 2nd joint (inch worm)

pointe work with poor technique, short shoes
What are Claw Toes? What are the causes?
toes curled in flexion with hyperextended 1st joint (curved over), influences mobility and push off capacity

knuckling on pointe, pointe too soon, short shoes, tight ligaments
What is a Tailor's Bunnion? What are the causes?
Varus of the 5th toe, with valgus of the 5th metatarsal (distal segment towards midline), impacts balance and stability, bunnion forms on outside of 5th metatarsal

tight shoes, habitual supination, walking turned out, sitting cross-legged
What are the restrictions and possible actions of the sub-talar (tarsal and metatarsals)?
restrictions-mainly ligamentous

possible actions- inversion, eversion, forefoot A24, forefoot A22
(pronation, supination are a combination of these actions)
What do the arches provide?
shock absorption
What are the two arches found in the foot?
Longitudinal- runs lengthwise on medial/lateral

Transverse- created by doming of metatarsals
A Feiss line is an imaginary line used to assess what? Name the bony landmarks used to identify the Feiss line.
It is used to asses the longitudinal arch.

landmarks: medial malleolus, navicular tuberosity, head of 1st metatarsal

-navicular should fall right beloe the Feiss Line
What is Pes Planus? What are the causes?
"flat foot," low longitudinal arch (navicular falls far below Feiss Line), associated with pronation, impacts foot stability, medial bulge

heredity, lax ligaments
What is Pes Cavus? What are the causes?
"high arch," high longitudinal arch, naviclar tuberosity on or above Feiss Line, creates abnormal stress on instep and ball, heavy callous formation on heel/ball of foot, associated with supination

What is pronation? What are the causes?
habitual medial thrust, occurs with or without pes planus, Helbing's sign

pes planus, genu varus, genu valgus, overturning, faulty alignment, etc
What is a "Helbing's Sign," and what does it indicate?
medial bow of the Achilles tendon

indicates pronation
A person who has a tendency to habitually pronate will also almost always have a pes planus.

pes planus can be a cause of pronation, but you don't have to have pes planus to be a pronator
What is supination?
lateral weight thrust, inversion, A44
lateral bow of achilles tendon, lateral tipping of calcaneous, associated with pes cavus