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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pyroclastic Flows
The big cloud of ash, hot rocks and other debris let out from the volcano shortly after it erupts
Shield Volcano
Example- Mauna Loa (Hawaii)
Has broad sloping sides.
Eruptions not violent, but continuous
Composite Volcano
Example- Mount Pinatubo (Philippines)
Tall, cone shaped, steeply sided.
Eruptions very explosive
Geothermal Heat
Heat from inside the Earth, produced by radioactive decay of uranium inside the core and mantle
How do we know that the inside of the earth is hot?
- Lava from volcanos
- Hot springs and geysers
Where heat moves to the surface
The Magnetosphere
Invisible magnetic field around the earth.
Made by the outercore
Protects the earth from harmful radiation
Ring of fire
Located in the Pacific
Has the biggest concentration of plate boundaries
Constructive Plate Boundary
Example- Iceland (Mid At Ridge)
Plates move apart, magma creates new oceanic crust.
Small earthquakes formed due to friction
Volcanos are not very explosive
Destructive Plate Boundary
Example- Andes Mountains
Oceanic crust is submerged under continental crust as it is more dense
Creates very destructive earthquakes and tsunamis
Conservative Plate Boundary
Example- San Andreas Fault
Two plates slide past each other
Forms earthquakes and regular tremmors
Collision Zone
A type of destructive boundary
Two continental plates push up against each other to form mountain ranges
Cause earthquakes and landslides
What measures the destructive power of a volcano?
VEI- Volcanic Explosivity Index
Name some Volcanic Hazards
- Pyroclastic flows
- Land slides
- Volcanic mudslides
- Lava flows
- Acid rain created
- Collapse of buildings due to ash build up
What does a hazardous event becoming a disaster depend on?
1. The type of hazard
2. The area's venerability
3. Capacity/ability to cope and recover
Primary Impacts
At the place and time of the event. A direct cause
Secondary Impact
Follow the event. Not directly caused by it
The ability a community has to absorb and recover from the effects of a hazard
LEDC Earthquake
Kashmir, Pakistan (7.6)
- remote region, hard to get aid and rescue services
- Mountainous, lots of damage by landslides
- School time, poorly built classrooms collapsed
- Winter, survivors found it hard to stay warm
MEDC Earthquake
Loma Prieta, California (6.9)
- lots of damage to buildings, liquefaction
- Gas mains burst, fires
- Transport networks destroyed
Andesitic magma
High silica content
Lots of gas
Very explosive
Basaltic magma (shield volcanos)
Low silica content
No gas
Granatic magma
Less dense
Continental crust
When pressure builds up over a period of time and is suddenly released causing a violent movement on the earth's surface
Emergency Aid (Haiti)
- Money
- Food and water
- Shelter
- Medical supplies
this is the point on the Earth's SURFACE directly above the earthquake's focus.
this is the point INSIDE the Earth's crust or upper mantle where the rocks elastic limit is exceeded and energy is released.
Where water rises to the surface from the water table. Surface made very unstable and wet (like jelly)
How can LEDC's protect and strengthen buildings?
Timber frame- adding diagonal bracing using steel
Heavy roof- remove mud overlay on top
Separation of joints at corners- Strengthen using wire mesh and cement overlay
How can MEDC's protect and strengthen buildings?
Hazard resistant designs:
- Diagonal bracing to frame
- Steel structure which can sway
- Foundations sunk into bedrock
- Open areas for assemblies
- Shock absorbers
- Roads for quick access
Reducing the impact
Managing the impacts of hazards in MEDC's (such as Japan)
- Building design
- Warning systems
- Preparation days
- Learning response and recovery techniques
Predicting and protecting from volcano eruptions
- Tiltmeters
- Seismometers
- Hot springs monitored
- Aircrafts to measure gas emitted

- Concrete shelters
- Concrete channels
- Evacuation routes signposted
Prediction? N
Protection? Y
Preparation? Y
Warning? N
Evacuation? N
Prediction? Y
Protection? Y
Preparation? Y
Warning? Y
Evacuation? Y