Volcanoes

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Volcanoes

Volcanoes are magnificent yet dangerous structures created by the forces of nature when Earth’s tectonic plates diverge and collide against each other letting the Earth vent out pent up gases, magma, rock, and ash. There are three types of volcanoes called Shield, Stratovolcanoes, and Cinder cones. Volcanoes are further labeled as active, dormant, or extinct depending on recent activity. The magma underneath the Earth’s mantle is responsible for the explosion and creation of volcanoes around the world. About 90 percent of all volcanoes on Earth are found in the Ring of Fire located in the Pacific Ocean. Their explosions are also classified depending as to how much destruction and material is blown out. The pyroclastic flows are ash,
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Around the core exists the mantle which is composed of superhot rock. The superhot rock squeezes upward creating bubbles of liquid rock known as magma chambers. These magma bubbles rise up through cracks and weaknesses in crust because the magma is lighter than the surrounding rock. Eruptions then occur when the magma, debris, and gases burst out creating volcanoes. The outer crust is composed of regions called tectonic plates. They float on top of the magma portion of the Earth and are moved by the magma’s currents. When plates diverge magma comes up and can form volcanoes. This is common under the ocean where hot zones exist. The zones are so hot they melt the crust away in that area and underwater volcanoes are born. These underwater volcanoes benefit the world because they form archipelagos such as Hawaii. Most volcanoes are found along the edges of fault lines. When plates collide volcanoes can form when released ash and magma cool. One of the plates may go under the other which is called subduction. The type of volcano formed depends on the type of eruption produced. If there is a lot of superhot magma and many gases creating intense pressure the consequences can be …show more content…
A stratovolcano that caused a Plinian eruption in 79 AD, this volcano killed around 16,000 people when it covered the town of Herculaneum on August 24th, and killed 2,000 residents of Pompeii the next day. Mount Vesuvius located in Naples, Italy is part of the Campanian Arc of volcanoes along a subduction zone created by the African and Eurasian plates. It runs the length of the Italian peninsula along with Mount Etna and Stromboli. The subduction plate under Mount Vesuvius has a part that has torn away. Rocks are a bit chemically different in this volcano because of this tear. They are mostly andesite rocks which are intermediate volcanic rocks. Mount Vesuvius has had steady activity up until 1944. Eight major eruptions have occurred in the past 17,000 years. In 79 AD, the town of Herculaneum was killed with toxic gases and ash and pumice that covered the city. The next day the citizens of Pompeii that did not flee were suffocated with toxic gases and buried where they lay as ash and rain cemented the city

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