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72 Cards in this Set

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a) Describe the main philosophy of the positivist approach to scientific research.




b) Determine whether positivist scientific research is based primarily in qualitative or quantitative work.

a) There is one distinct truth, which can be uncovered if our methods are perfect.




b) Quantitative.

a) Describe the main philosophy of the social constructionist approach to scientific research




b) Determine whether social constructionist scientific research is based primarily in qualitative or quantitative work.

a) Truths are dependent on societal context and are socially constructed.




b) Qualitative.

Research that focuses on the works of Plato, Aristotle, etc. can be described under what research approach?

Scholacticism

Which research approach includes "black-box psychology"?

Empirical

What is "black-box psychology?"

A way of researching that focuses on stimuli and behaviours without worrying about what happens in between.

What are two benefits of the empirical approach to research?

It is measurable and observable.

What do we refer to when using the term "falsifiable"?

The principle that it should be just as possible to disprove a hypothesis as it is to prove it.

What are the purposes of scientific research?

1) To describe.




2) To explain.




3) To determine causality.




4) To predict.

What are the steps of the research process?

1) Background research.




2) Statement of research question.




3) Formulation of hypothesis.




4) Designing methods.




5) Performing the study.




6) Consideration of results.

"Participants who use their phones will use fewer gestures than those in face-to-face conversations." This is an example of what?




a) A directional hypothesis.


b) A non-directional hypothesis.


c) A research question.

a) A directional hypothesis.

"There will be a difference in the number of gestures used by people using phones and people in face-to-face conversations." This is an example of what?




a) A directional hypothesis.


b) A non-directional hypothesis.


c) A research question.

b) A non-directional hypothesis.

"Does mode of communication influence gesture use?" This is an example of what?




a) A directional hypothesis.
b) A non-directional hypothesis.
c) A research question.

c) A research question.

What are the three features of data fraud?

1) Intentional falsification of data.




2) Not reporting errors.




3) Failure to produce or share raw data.

What are the three major examples of intentional ethical violations?

1) Experiments performed on victims of the Holocaust.




2) The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.




3) Willowbrook Hepatitis Experiment.

What are two examples of unintentional ethical violations in history?

1) Stanford Prison Experiment.




2) Milgram's Obedience Study.

What are the three ethical principles of the Belmont Report?

1) Respect for persons.




2) Beneficence.




3) Justice.

What are the three ethical principles of the Tri-Council Policy?

1) Respect for persons.




2) Concern for welfare.




3) Justice.

To what governing bodies do the REB adhere?

1) SSHRC.




2) NSERC.




3) CIHR.

What is an assent form in research?

A form stating that a person is willing to participate in research, provided by someone who is legally unable to consent (e.g. because they are a child).

What are the criteria of causality?

1) Can make causal statements.




2) Establish temporal precedence.




3) Eliminate alternative hypotheses.

Is probability sampling random or not?

Random.

Is non-probability sampling random or not?

Not random.

What is a factorial design?

A design with more than one independent variable.

What is the main effect in a factorial design?

The effect that an independent variable has by itself.

1) How many main effects can there be in a 2x2x2 design?




2) How many two-way interactions can there be in a 2x2x2 design?




3) How many three-way interactions can there be in a 2x2x2 design?

1) 3.




2) 3.




3) 1.

The ____________ approach to research is linear.

Quantitative.

When should you use qualitative research approaches?

To generate hypotheses, to capture lived experiences, and for participatory action research.

Describe a panel survey design.

The same group is used over time.

Describe a trend survey design.

The same variables are measured over time, but different people are used for the survey.

Describe a cohort survey design.

The same variables are measured over time and a specific group is targeted.

X = T + E




What does this describe?

Observed score = True score + Error

What estimates the reliability of a test?

Cronbach's Alpha.

How high should inter-item correlation be?

>.8

What is reliability?

The consistency of a measure.

What are the different types of reliability?

1) Internal consistency.




2) Test-retest.




3) Interrater.

How is internal consistency measured?

Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability.

How is test-retest reliability measured?

Correlation coefficients.

How is interrater reliability measured?

Correlation coefficients and kappa.

What is the numerical standard for good reliability?

Close to 1.

What is the major problem with having an unreliable measure?

It creates a confound.

What are the three major types of validity?

Internal validity, external validity, and construct validity.

Causality is related to __________ validity.

Internal.

Generalizability is related to ___________ validity.

External.

Strength of measurement is related to _____________ validity.

Construct.

What are the five types of construct validity?

Face validity, concurrent validity, content validity, predictive validity, and convergent-discriminant validity.

To what does face validity refer?

The level to which the measure reflects what's being measured.

To what does concurrent validity refer?

Whether the criterion occurs at the same time as the measurement.

To what does content validity refer?

Whether the measure reflects all of the construct and nothing more.

To what does predictive validity refer?

Whether the measure predicts future behaviours.

To what does convergent-divergent validity refer?

Whether the measure is related to other measures of the same construct (convergent) and is unrelated to measures of other constructs (divergent).

What are time-related threats to internal validity?

History, maturation, testing, instrument decay, and attrition/experimental mortality.

How does history affect internal validity?

If an event occurs during the experimental process, it may affect the dependent variable.

How does maturation affect internal validity?

Normal human development could affect a dependent variable.

How does testing affect internal validity?

People may act differently while observed or tested.

How does instrument decay affect internal validity?

The standard of a measurement may change over time.

How does attrition/experimental mortality affect internal validity?

Certain types of participants may be more inclined to drop out of a study than others, affecting the dependent variable.

What are group-related threats to internal validity?

Selection bias, nonresponse bias, and regression to the mean.

How does selection bias affect internal validity?

Groups may not be initially equivalent at the beginning of the study.

How does nonresponse bias affect internal validity?

Certain types of people may be less likely to participate in a study.

How does regression to the mean affect internal validity?

People who score along one extreme in one instance will often score closer to the mean in subsequent instances.

Does regression to the mean occur in random or non-random sampling? Why?

Regression to the mean occurs in non-random sampling. In random sampling, different participants will score along different extremes, which cancels out regression to the mean.

What are the threats to external validity?

Experimental setting, context, history, and selection.

How does experimental setting affect external validity?

If a situation is too contrived, it may not accurately reflect real life situations and people's responses to them.

How does context affect external validity?

The setting can impact a person's true responses.

How does history affect external validity?

If an event occurs during the study, it can influence participant responses.

How does selection affect external validity?

Participants may only reflect certain subgroups if they are only drawn from those subgroups.

What is ecological validity?

The extent to which a research situation represents the natural social environment.

How can external validity be established?

Through multiple measures, replication, and meta-analyses.

What is exact replication in scientific research?

The same independent variable is measured using similar methods.

What is conceptual replication in scientific research?

The same independent variable is measured using different methods.

What is mundane realism?

The extent to which a study reflects an actual situation in real life.

What is experimental realism?

The extent to which a study is psychologically "real" to a participant.