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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is developmental psychology?
The study of age related differences and changes in behavior.
What is the major implication of changes in the population pyramid in the year 2030?
A larger group of older people and a smaller group (%) of middle aged.
Explain the nature versus nurture controversy.
Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. The nature proponents claim biological inheritance is the most important influence on development; the nurture proponents claim that environmental experiences are the most important.
Distinguish between longitudinal and cross-sectional research.
Longitudinal is following the same age groups through time whereas cross-sectional is investigating different age groups at one time.
Distinguish between time-lag design and a sequential design.
Time lag researches the same age groups at different times whereas sequential may use a variety of approaches such as combining time lag and longitudinal.
What is a coefficient of correlation?
A statistical index used to indicate the degree of correlation between variables. Varies between +1.00 and -1.00.
What are Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

Preoperational (2-7 years)

Concrete Operations (7-11 years)

Formal Operations (11+)
Explain Vygotsky’s theory.
Emphasizes developmental analysis, language and social relations.
What are four ways age has been conceptualized?
Chronological, biological, psychological, social
Be able to recognize any of Freud’s stages by name only.
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Be able to recognize any of Erikson’s theories by name only.
integrity vs despair, generativity vs stagnation, intimacy vs isolation, identity vs identity confusion, industry vs inferiority, initiative vs guilt, autonomy vs shame and doubt, trust vs mistrust.
Be able to recognize one of the careers in Appendix, Chapter 1.
Preschool/kindergarten teacher-preschool teachers mainly 4 year old children and kindergarten teachers teach 5 year old children. They usually have an undergraduate degree in education, specializing in early childhood education. State certification is usually required.
1. What individual qualities do chromosomes control? (L)
Unique physical characteristics, Shared growth patterns, possibly Temperament , Intelligence and related
2. Explain how chromosomes determine the sex of a child.
Female = X + X (XX)

Male = X + Y (XY)
Describe the chromosomal alignment in the 4 sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities.
Klinefelter (XXY)

Fragile X (weak X)

Turner (missing X)

XYY syndrome (XYY)
List the five most common infertility treatments.

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
In vitro fertilization (IVF)

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
What is positive eugenics? Negative eugenics? (L)
PE = selective breeding for positive characteristics

NE = selective breeding to weed out negative characteristics
How many chromosomes does the nucleus of each human cell contain?
23 pairs.
What are the three periods of prenatal development?
Germinal….0-2 weeks

Embryonic….2-8 weeks

Fetal….8 weeks – birth
List one major event of each prenatal period.
G = attachment of zygote (implantation)

E = organs appear (organogenesis)

F = cellular specialization
What is FAS?
Fetal alcohol syndrome

Mild to extreme effects
List two of several environmental teratogens.


toxic waste


computer monitors (?)

hot tubs
List two of the five signs indicating a need for professional counseling about postpartum adaptation as mentioned in the text.
worry, depression, appetite, crying, sleeplessness
List two examples of teratogens (p. 98)
drugs and infectious diseases.
What is bonding?
The formation of a close connection.
Distinguish between cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of growth
c = head to toe

p = center to extremities
What are some advantages of breast feeding?
fewer allergies, reduced infections, denser bones

reduced cancer, less SIDS, neuro and cognitive development

visual acuity
When is the best time to toilet train?
readiness approach, when ready!
List two of five newborn reflexes
sucking, rooting, moro, grasping, Babinski
Describe the visual ability of a newborn.
20/400 & 20/800, can see colors
Describe the auditory perception of a newborn.
good, but not as good as adults
Describe the olfactory perception of a newborn.
can differentiate odors
Describe taste preferences of a newborn.
present even before birth
Describe primary circular reactions.
1-4 months, exploration self
Describe secondary circular reactions
4-8 months, exploration of environment, goals
Describe tertiary circular reactions
12 - 18 months, cause and effect
**What is object permanence?
understanding objects exist even when not present – memory
What is habituation and why is it important?
reduced attention to a stimulus, neurological development
Differentiate between Piaget’s scheme and a T.A. scheme. (L)
P = cognitive structure

TA = cognitive and affective structure
differentiate all the age classifications
chronological-the number of years that have elapsed since birth.

biological-a person's age in terms of biological health.

psychological-an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.

social-social roles and expectations related to a person's age.
What is the average length and weight of North American newborns?
20 inches long
7 1/2 pounds
What sleeping position reduces the risk of SIDS?
sleep on their backs
What is intermodal perception?
integrating information from two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing.
List two of the three types of cry.
basic anger pain
List Thomas & Chess’ three basic types of temperament.
easy 40%

difficult 10%

slow-to-warm-up 15%

(other) 35%
What is Erik Erikson’s first stage of development.
What increases secure attachment according to Ainsworth?
sensitivity to infants signals
List 2 types of smiling
reflexive and social
When does stranger anxiety typically appear
at 6 months
How do caregivers of insecure avoidant babies interact with them?
tend to be unavailable or rejecting
What should be considered when choosing day care?
patterns of use, quality of care, amount of child care.