• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Definition of Psychology

the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior

Who was the "father of psychology"

Wilhelm Wundt

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow belong to which school of thought in psychology?

Humanistic Psychology

Experimental method

A type of research that manipulates a variable of interest (independent) to uncover cause-and-effect relationships

random assignment

the process of appointing participants in a research study to the experimental or control groups ensuring every person has an equal chance

experimental group

the members of an experiment who are exposed to treatment variable or manipulation of the experimenter

control group

the participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the treatment variable


inert substance given to group members of the control group; the fake treatment that has no effects but is administered as if it does

independent variable

the variable manipulated by the researcher

dependent variable

the characteristic or response that is measured to determine the effects of the researchers manipulations

extreaneous variable

variable in the environment that could unintentionally influence the outcome of the study

confounding variable

type of extraneous variable that changes in sync with the independent variable


building blocks of the nervous system that transmit electrical and chemical signals in the body

cell body

the region of the neuron that includes a nucleus containing DNA, protein-producing mechanisms, and other structures that nourish the cell


tiny, branchlike fibers extending from the cell body that receive messages from other neurons and send info in the direction of the cell body


skinny tubelike structure of a neuron that extends from the cell body and sends messages to other neurons

action potential

the spike in electrical energy that passes through the axon of a neuron; the purpose of which is to convey info


chemical messengers that neurons use to communicate at the synapse

cerebral cortex

the wrinkled outermost layer of the cerebrum, responsible for higher mental functions such as decision-making, planning, and processing visual information

frontal lobes

the area of the cortex that organizes information among the other lobes of the brain and is responsible for higher-level cognitive functions and behavior

parietal lobes

the area of the cortex that recieves and processes sensory information such as touch, pressure, temperature

occipital lobe

the area of the cortex in the back of the head that processes visual information

temporal lobe

rethe area of the cortex that processes auditory stimuli and language

association areas

regions of the cortex that integrate info from all over the brain

motor cortex

a band of tissue toward the rear of the frontal lobes that works with other brain regions to plan and execute voluntary movements

somatosensory cortex

a band of tissue running parallel to the motor cortex that receives and integrates sensory infor from all over the body

limbic system

a horseshoe-shaped collection of structures that regulates emotions and basic drives like hunger and aids in creation of memory


pair of seahorse-shaped structures located in the limbic system; primarily responsible for creating new memories


pair of almond-shaped structures in the limbic system that processes basic emotions such as fear and aggression as well as memories


a structure in the limbic system that processes and relats sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex


small structure located below the thalamus that maintains a constant internal environment within a healthy range; helps regulate sleep-wake cycles, sexual behavior, appetite


largest part of the brain; includes the cerebral cortex and the limbic system


part of the brain stem involved in levels of arousal; responsible for generating movement patterns in response to sensory input

reticular formation

a network of neurons running through the midbrain that controls levels of arousal and quickly analyzes sensory info on its way to the cortex


includes areas of the brain responsible for fundamental life-sustaining processes


a hindbrain structure that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and coordinate movement between the right and left sides of the body


structure that oversees vital functions, including breathing, digestion and heart rate


structure located behind the brain stem that is responsible for muscle coordination and balance, latin for "little brain"

brocas areas

an area of the cortex that is critical for speech production

wernickes areas

region of the cortex that plays a pivotal role in language comprehension

corpus callosum

thick band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres; principal structure for information shared between the two

endocrine system

communication system that uses glands to convey messages by releasing hormones into the bloodstream

pituitary glands

pea-sized gland located in the center of the brain just under the hypothalamus; secretes hormones that dictate the release of hormones by other glands

thyroid gland

gland of the endocrine system that regulates the rate of metabolism

adrenal glands

part of the endocrine system involved in responses to stress as well as the regulation of salt balance

autonomic nervous system

branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary processes within the body such as contractions in the digestive tract and activity of the glands

sympathetic nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the "fight-or-flight" response to stressful or crisis situations

parasympathetic nervous systems

division of the autonomic nervous system that orchestrates the "rest-and-digest" response to bring the body back to noncrisis mode

central nervous system

a major component of the human nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord


perception incongruent with sensory data


natural tendency for the brain to organize stimuli into a whole, rather than perceiving the parts and pieces


central principle of gestalt psychology, involving the shifting of focus; as atrention is focused on one object, all other feautures drop or recede into the background

depth perception

ability to perceive three-dimensional objects and judge distances

binocular cues

information gathered from both eyes to help judge depth and distances


binocular cue used to judge distance and depth based on the tension of muscles that direct where the eyes are focusing

retinal disparity

binocular cue that uses the difference between theimages the two eyes see to detemine the distance of objects

monocular clues

depth and distance cues that require the use of only one eyes

perceptual constancy

tendency to perceive objects in our environment as stable in terms of shape, size, and color, regardless of changes in the sensory data recieved

shape constancy

an object is perceived as maintining its shape, regardless of the image projected on the retina

size constancy

object is perceived as maintinf its size, regardless of the image projected on the retina

color constancy

objects are perceived as maintaining their color, even with changing sensory data

perceptual set

tendency to perceive stimuli in a specific manner based on past experiences and expectations

extrasensory perception

purported ability to obtain information about the world without any sensory stimuli


study of extrasensory perception