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241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
What is Behavior?
Outward or overt actions and reactions.
What are Mental Processes?
Internal, covert activity of our minds.
What are the four goals of psychology?

1)Describe: What is happening

2)Explain: Why is it happening

3)Prediction: Will it happen again?

4)Control: How can it be changed?

What is structuralism focused on?
The structure of the mind.
What is objective introspection?
The process of objectively examining and measuring one’s thoughts and mental activities.
Who came up with structuralism?
Edward Titchener & Margaret Washburn
What is functionalism?
How people function at work, in the real world, play and adapt to their environment.
Who came up with functionalism?
William James, Margaret Washburn, & Cecil Sumner.
What is significant about Margaret Washburn?
She was the first woman to earn a PH. D in psychology.
What is significant about Cecil Sumner?
The first African American to receive PH.D in psychology.
What is gestalt psychology?
The type of psychology studying the whole patterns other than small parts.
What did Sigmund Freud come up with?
What is psychoanalysis?
The significance of the unconscious mind into where we push, or repress, all of our threatening urges and desires.
What is behaviorism?
The thought that a reflex is caused by a response, it is also believed that all behaviors can be learned.
Who came up with behaviorism
Pavlov and Watson
What is humanistic psychology?
An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings.
Who came up with humanistic psychology?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

What is the psychodynamic perspective?

This approach focuses on unconscious mind and the influence over conscious behavior through the early childhood experiences.

What is cognitive perspective?
This approach focus on how individuals think.
What is biopyschological perspective?
The characteristics of human and animal behavior is the result of biological events happening in the body.
What is evolutionary perspective?
It looks at the way the mind works and the purpose for what it works to do.
What are the two types of research done by psychologist

Basic: research done to obtain scientific information.

Applied: answers a real-world issues or concerns or practical problems

What are the four types of psychology studies?
Naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, case studies, and surveys.
What is a naturalistic observation?
Watching behavior in an natural environment.
What is laboratory observation?
Recorded observation not in a realistic setting.
What are surveys?
Is basically asking questions to gain personal information being studied.
What are the two types of groups that you need in an experiment?

1) Experimental group: The group that gets controlled.

2) Control group: Is used for other factors may be causing the reason that is being examined.

What is the nervous system?
A system that takes information to and from all parts of our body.
What do neurotransmitters do?
They transmit information inside the neuron?
What makes up the central nervous system?
The brain and spinal cord.
What does the brain act as in the central nervous system?
The core of the nervous system.
What does the spinal cord act as in the central nervous system?
A group of neurons that carries messages through the vertebral cavity of the spine.
What does the peripheral nervous system do?
To connect the central nervous system to the organs, limbs and skin.
What does the somatic nervous system do?
Carrying sensory and motor information for the central nervous system.
What does the autonomic nervous system do?
To regulate involuntary body functions, such as blood flow, heartbeat, digestion and breathing.
What two parts is the autonomic nervous system divided into?
Sympathetic system and parasympathetic system.
What is the sympathetic system?
Fight or flight reactions.
What is the parasympathetic system?
Helps sustain normal body functions.
What is a hormone?
A specific molecule that acts as a chemical messenger in the endocrine system.
What is the endocrine system
Glands that regulates things in your body.

What is the purpose of the pineal gland?

To produce melatonin and regulate our sleep cycles and sexual development.

What is the purpose of the thyroid gland?

Controls growth and metabolism.

What are the pancreas and gonads for?
Controls the blood sugar levels in the body and sex glands.

What are the adrenal glands used for?

They release sex hormones and fight or flight responses.

What is an alarm?
Reaction to the stressor by the sympathetic nervous system.
What is resistance?
Trying to fight off the stress.
What is exhaustion?
What happens when you try to fight off the stressor.
What are three things stress can cause?

1) A weakened immune system

2) Heart disease

3) Diabetes

What is lesioning studies?
A way of finding out the particular areas that are damaged in the brain by testing to see what happened.
What is brain simulation?
Makes activity in the brain by stimulation or an electrical stimulus
What is noninvasive method?
The procedure of magnetic pulses are put over the cortex using a copper wire coils that are put over your head.
What are neuroimaging techniques?
Taking X-rays of a living person’s brain. This can be done to stroke, tumors, or abnormal brain structures.
What is a MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)?
Is done to determine if people have had small strokes or investigate disorders that people have.
What is an EEG (Electroencephalogram)?
Placing small metal-disk or sponge- like electrodes over the scalp and a solution to generate signals form the cortex.
What is a PET (Positron emission tomography)?
The person is injected with a type of sugar that finds the brain activity by the various input of colors by a monitor.
What is a functional MRI?
A computer follows the various oxygen levels of the blood in the brain.
What are the five parts that make up the main structure of the brain?
Medulla, Pons, Reticular formation, Cerebellum, and Hypothalamus.
Where is the medulla located and what is its function?
At the top of the spinal cord that controls heartbeat and breathing.
Where are the pons located and what is its function?
A bridge from the lower parts of the brain to the upper sections. It controls sleep, dreams and movements from right and left side of the body.
What does the reticular formation do?
The section of the brain that lets people ignore constant, unchanging information and become aware of information that is changing.
What does the cerebellum do?
Controls motor activity: The way you sit, walking, movements of speech, skating.
What does the hypothalamus do and where is it found?
This controls thirst, hunger, sleep and found below the thalamus.
What does thalamus do?
Part of the brain that’s for sensory information (sensations).
What does olfactory bulb do and where is it located?
The sense of smell in the sinus cavity (under the front part of the brain).
What is the hippocampus used for?
How we remember long-term memories that are kept in the brain
What is the amygdala for?
Associated with fear responses and memory of fear.
What is the cingulate cortex used for?
Is used for emotional, cognitive, and autonomic information.
Where is the cortex located?
The outermost part of the brain
What is the cerebral hemisphere used for?
The ability for the right and left hemispheres to communicate with one another.
What are the occipital lobes used for?
The purpose of how we process visual information from our eyes.
What are the parietal lobes used for?
The purpose of this is body receptors for touch and temperature.
What are the temporal lobes used for?
The purpose of this is learning and memory.
What are the frontal lobes used for?
Helps control emotions with the limbic system.
What is consciousness?
A state of knowing what is going on around you.
What is an altered state of consciousness?
An experience that departs significantly from the ordinary personal practice of the world and mind.
What is the circadian rhythm?
It is our 24-hour naturally occurring sleep-cycle.
How many types of sleep are there?
What is the first stage of sleep?
Light sleep: the person may not even believe they are really sleep. Drifting off to sleep. May “jump” when startled.
What is the second stage of sleep?
Sleep spindles: The person’s eye movement cease and waves in the brain get slow with rhythmic brain activity.
What is the third stage of sleep?
Very slow brain waves to the brain that are known as delta waves.Deep sleep

What is the fourth stage of sleep?
A deep sleep that lasts for about 30 minutes. Sleepwalking and bed-wetting typically happen at the end of Stage Four.
What is the fifth stage of sleep?
Rapid eye movement(REM): The majority of the person’s dreaming is done. REM sleep is characterized by eye movement, increased respiration rate and increased brain activity.
What are nightmares?
Bad dreams that occur during REM. Some children have more severe nightmares while sleeping than adults.
What are night terrors?
A state of fear while in non-REM sleep. In a very deep state of sleep with shallow breathing.
What is sleepwalking and when would it occur?
This occurs in stage 3 of sleep. More frequently in boys than girls. About 20 percent. Some due to heredity
What is insomnia?
Not sleeping at all.
What is sleep apnea?
This occurs when you stop breathing nearly 10 seconds or more while sleep.
What is narcolepsy?
Falling asleep anywhere.
What did Freud believe?
He believed that you could reach patients by their dreams.
What is the process of dreams?
Condensation, displacement, and secondary elaboration.
What is condensation?
The joining of two or more ideas/images into one.
What is displacement?
Takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else.
What is secondary elaboration?
Unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content.
What is a psychoactive drug?
A substance that impacts your thinking, perception, memory and the ability to do those things.
What does a stimulant do?
Create an increase in dopamine and can make you have a feeling of euphoria.
What do depressants do?
They have a drowsy affectand make you feel relaxed or calm.
What do hallucinogens do?
Temporarily disturbs communication among brain chemical systems between the brain and spinal cord.
What is learning?
How you acquire new knowledge.
What is classical conditioning?
When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
What is a stimulus?
Something that causes a response.
What is a response?
The reaction that happens from a stimulus?
What are the elements of classical conditioning?

1) Unconditioned stimulus

2) Unconditioned response

3) Conditioned stimulus

4) Conditioned response

What are the four principles of classical conditioning?

1) There must be association with the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.

2) The conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must come close together in time.

3) Conditioned stimulus must be paired with the unconditioned stimulus several times before the conditioning will begin.

4) The conditioned stimulus must be distinctive.

What are five features of classical conditioning?

1) Extinction

2) Spontaneous recovery

3) Stimulus generalization

4) Stimulus discrimination

5) Higher-order discrimination

What is extinction?
Elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US.
What is spontaneous recovery?
The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
What is stimulus generalization?
The conditioning generalizes to stimuli that are similar to the CS used in the original training.
What is stimulus discrimination?
the process of telling the difference between the original stimulus and the similar stimulus
What is high-order conditioning?
Another stimulus paired with the original stimulus to produce the conditioned response.
What is operant conditioning?
Behavior that required an organism to do something, solve a problem, or manipulate elements of its environment.
What is a reinforcer?
Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.
What is a punisher?
Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.
What are primary reinforcers?
Something that helps satisfy a biological need.
What are secondary reinforcers?
Derive its effectiveness from the association with a primary reinforcer through classical conditioning.
What is positive reinforcement?
Experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.

What is negative reinforcement?
Aresponse or behavior is strengthened by stopping or removing a negative outcome.
What is punishment?
A change occurring after a behavior to reduce or eliminate the behavior happening again.
What is punishment of application?
Occurs when something unpleasant is added to the situation or applied.
What is punishment of removal?
Behavior that is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired behaviors.
What is a token economy?
Reinforcers that can be traded in for other kinds of reinforcers.
Who came up with cognitive learning theory?
Edward Tolman
What is latent learning?
Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.

What is insight learning?
Occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem.
Who came up with insight learning?
Who came up with learned helplessness?
What was the experiment done for learned helplessness?
When an animal is repeatedly subjected to an aversive stimulus that it cannot escape. Eventually, the animal will stop trying to avoid the stimulus and behave as if it is utterly helpless to change the situation.
What is observational learning?
Watching the actions of others.
What is memory?
The capability to store and retrieve information over time.
What are the memory process steps?

1) You put stuff in there (encoding)

2) It stays there (storage)

3) You get it out (retrieval)

What are the three different models of memory?

1) Information processing model

2) Parallel distributed processing model

3) Levels of processing model

What is information processing model?
Consist of a series of stages, or boxes, which represent stages of processing.
What is parallel distributed processing model?
The model claims that information is not put into the memory system in a step by step manner like most models but instead, facts or images are spread to all parts in the memory system at once.
What is levels of processing model?
The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
What are the two types of sensory memory?

1) iconic (visual)

2) echoic (auditory)

What is short term memory?
Important information that enters our consciousness. Short-term memories are held up to 30 seconds.
What is long term memory?
A system for permanently storing, managing, and retrieving information for a later time. Items of information put in long-term memory may be available forever.
What are the two types of declarative memory?

1) Semantic

2) Episodic

What is semantic memory?
These are memories of facts, concepts, names, and other general knowledge information.
What is episodic memory?
These are your long-term memories of specific events.
What is a semantic network model?
You can give an explanation of how information is stored in a connected fashion.
What is content dependent learning?
Where the person learned the information (physical surroundings).
What is state dependent learning?
Memories remembered during a certain physiological or psychological; state will be easier to remember while in a similar state.
What are flashbulb memories?
These are detailed recollections can be as clear as something that happened yesterday, right down to the dialogue, the weather and even what people were wearing when they heard the news.
What is human development?
The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.
What is longitudinal study?
An observational, meaning that there is no interference with the subjects, or respondents (if you happen to be surveying).
What is a cross-sectional study?
The not-so-distant cousin to longitudinal, and also a kind of observational research, is intended to compare multiple population groups at a single point in time.
What is a cross-sequential design?
A method used in research that combines a longitudinal design as well as a cross-sectional design.
What is clarified as nature?
Inherited characteristics on personality.
What is clarified as nurture?
Environmental influences
What is a phenotype?
Physical appearance of a person with their genes.
What are dominant genes?
Genes actively influencing a trait.
What is recessive genes?
Faded in the background.
What are identical twins?
What are fraternal twins?
What are Piget's stages of cognitive development?

1) Sensorimotor stage

2) Preoperational stage

3) Concrete operational stage

4) Formal operations

What is the sensorimotor stage?
(0-2 years) Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, in which the infant uses his or her senses and motor abilities to interact with objects on the environment.

What is preoperational stage?
(2-7 years) Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.
What is concrete operational stage?
(7-11 years) Third stage of cognitive development, in which the school-aged child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking.
What is formal operations?
(11+ years) Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.
What is object permanence?
The knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight.
What is egocentrism?
The inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes.

What is centration?
The tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features.
What are the three things involved with Vygotsky’s theory?

1) scaffolding

2) zone of proximal development

3) private speech

What is scaffolding?
The process by which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, then reduces the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.

What is the zone of proximal development?
The difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher.
What is private speech?
Vygotsky viewed this as a way for a child to “think out loud” and advance cognitively.
What does language development allow children to do?

1) Think in words rather than images

2) Ask questions

3) Communicate their needs

4) Form concepts

What is child directed speech?
Children attend to higher-pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech.
What is temperament?
Behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth.
What is attachment?
The emotional bond between and infant and the primary caregiver.
What is ambivalent?
Insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves and then angry with mother upon her return.

What is disorganized disoriented?
Insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; child seems fearful, dazed, and depressed.
What is Erikson's eight stages?

1) Trust vs mistrust: infant birth to 1 years old

2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: 1 to 3 years old

3) Initiative vs Guilt: 3 to 5 years old

4) Industry versus inferiority: 5 to 12 years old

5) Identity vs role confusion: adolesense

6) Intimacy vs isolation

7) Generativity vs stagnation

8) Ego integrity vs despair

What is the trust vs mistrust stage?
The infants basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care.

What is the autonomy vs shame and doubt stage?
The toddler strives for physical independence.
What is the initiative vs guilt stage?
The preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy his or her curiosity about the world.
What is the industry vs inferiority?
The adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem.
What is identity vs role confusion?
The adolescent must find a consistent sense of self.
What is intimacy vs isolation?
An emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self.
What is generativity vs stagnation?
Providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the wellbeing of the next generation through career or volunteering.

What is ego integrity vs despair?
Sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego.
What is gender?
The psychological aspects of being male or female.

What is gender roles?
Cultural expectations regarding the behavior of a person who is perceived as male or female, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with a particular gender within that culture.
What is gender identity?
Sense of being male or female.
What is social learning theory?
Emphasis on learning through observation and imitation.
What is gender schema theory?
Combination of social learning theory and cognitive development.
What is androgyny?
Gender role characteristic of people whose personalities reflect the characteristics of both males and females, regardless of gender.
What is adolescence?
The period of life from about age thirteen to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet and independent, self-supporting adult.
What is a personal fable?
Young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm.
What is an imaginary audience?
Young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.
What are Kohlberg's Levels of Morality

1) Preconventional morality

2) Conventional morality

3) Post Conventional morality

What is preconventional morality?
Behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior.

What is conventional morality?
Behavior is governed by conforming to society’s norms of behavior.

What is post conventional morality?
Behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual.
What happens to women in old age?

What are the different types of parenting styles?

Authoritarian parenting- strict

Permissive parenting- no rules

Permissive neglectful- no attention

Permissive indulgent- perfect angel

Authoritative parenting- best style

What is the cellular clock theory?
Based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce.
What is wear and tear theory?
As time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body's tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage.
What is free radical theory?
Oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structure as they go.
What is activity theory?
Theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby.

What are the five stages of death and dying?

1) denial

2) anger

3) bargining

4) depression

5) acceptance

What is motivation?
Refers to the purpose or goal of an action.
What are the two types of motivation?
Biological and psychological
What is ghrelin?
Ghrelin is a hormone manufactured in the stomach lining and its job is to stimulate the brain to know when to eat. It is also known as the “hunger hormone.
What are the five levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

1) Biological and physiological needs: air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, and sleep

2) Safety needs: protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.3) Love and belongingness needs: friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends, and romantic relationships. 4) Esteem needs: achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, and respect from others.

5) Self-Actualization needs: realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

What is drive reduction theory?
That all motivation arises as a result of these biological needs.
What is McClelland's theory?
An individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences.
What is affliction?
Liked by others high regard.

What is power?
Influence over others and have an impact on them.

What is achievement?
High achievers and feedback about their performance.

What is the James-Lange Theory?
Wtnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions.
What is facial feedback?
The idea that one’s facial expressions can have an effect on emotional experience. Providing a feedback to the brain for that emotion.

What is social influence?
The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual.

What is conformity?
Changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people.
What is obedience?
Changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure.
What was Milgram's study?
A “teacher” administered what he or she thought were real shocks to a “learner”.
What are the three traits associated with social cognition?




What is attitude?
A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.

What are the three components associated with attitude?

Affective (emotional) component

Behavioral component

Cognitive component

What is cognitive dissonance?
Refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors.

What is stereotype vulnerability?
The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior.
What is a jigsaw classroom?
Educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, forcing individuals to work together to find the solution.
What is fundamental attribution error?
When we see someone doing something, we tend to think it relates to their personality rather than the situation the person might be in.
What is altruism?
The concern for others.

What is social cognitive theory?
Theorists of this school view prejudice as an attitude acquired trait.
What did Horney focus on?
Neurotic personalities.
According to Horney what are the three ways of dealing with being brought up by a neurotic family?

Moving toward people

Moving against people

Moving away from people

What is the humanistic theory?
This theory emphasizes our capacity for personal growth, development of our potential, and freedom to choose our destiny.
What are three major keys about the humanistic theory?

Phenomenological perspective

Holistic view 


What is phenomenological perspective?
Our perspective of the world, whether or not it is accurate becomes reality.
What is self actualization?
Our inherent tendency to reach our true potentials.
What is trait theory?
A theory that is less concerned with the explanation of personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description.
What is the five factor model made up of?






What is behavioral genetics?
The study of how much of a person’s individual personality is due to inherited traits.
What is a type A personality?
High-achieving workaholics, multi-task and push themselves to meet deadlines, and hate delays.
What is a type B personality?
Personality types are generally patient, relaxed, easy-going, and at times lacking an overriding sense of urgency.
What is a type C personality?
Not assertive by nature. This means that they often suppress their desires and wishes instead of standing up for them.

What is a Hardy personality?
Personalities that are high in control, commitment, and challenge.
What are three key features of being a hardy personality?




What is a MMPI
A test that assesses personality traits: actions attitudes, behaviors you possess.