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44 Cards in this Set

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Definition of psychology:
The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.
List some of the early viewpoints of psychology:
Aesclepius, Hippocrates, Structuralism, Functionalism, Rationalism, Empiricism, Behaviorism, Humanism, Gestalt, and Psychoanalysis.
What is Nativism?
The philosophical position that heredity provides individuals with inborn knowledge and abilities.
What is Empiricism?
The philosophical position that true knowledge comes through the scenes.
What is Rationalism?
The philosophical position that true knowledge comes through correct reasoning.
What is psycho physics?
The study of the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the conscious psychological experiences that are associated with them.
What is differential psychology?
The field of psychology that studies individual differences in physical, personality, and intellectual characteristics.
What is Structuralism?
The psychological viewpoint that sought to identify the components of the conscious mind.
What is functionalism?
The viewpoint that studied how the conscious mind helps the individual adapt to the environment.
What is analytic introspection?
A research method in which high trained participants report the contents of their conscious mental experiences.
What is, and who found psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud, the viewpoint that emphasizes the importance of unconscious causes of behavior.
What is psychic determinism?
The Freudian assumption that all human behavior is influenced by unconscious motives.
What is Behaviorism?
The viewpoint that rejects the study of mental processes in favor of the study of overt behavior.
What is Gestalt Psychology?
The early viewpoint that claimed that we perceive and think about wholes rather than simply combinations of separate elements.
What is the phi phenomenon?
Apparent motion caused by the presentation of different visual stimuli in rapid succession. (Movies)
What is the humanistic perspective?
The viewpoint that holds that the proper subject matter of psychology is the individual's subjective mental experience of the world.
What are the basic roots of psychology?
Philosophy and science/medicine.
What are the recent perspectives on psychology?
Cognitivism(Cognitive perspective), Neuroscience and biopsychology, evolutionary psychology, and the social-cultural perspective.
What is Cognitivism?
The viewpoint that favors the study of how the mind organizes perceptions, processes information, and interprets experiences.
What is the biopsychological perspective?
The viewpoint that stresses the relationship of physiological factors to behavior and mental processes.
What is the social-cultural perspective?
The viewpoint that favors the scientific study of human behavior in its social cultural context.
What is evolutionary psychology?
The study of the evolution of behavior through natural selection.
What is behavioral neuroscience?
The field that studies the physiological bases of human and animal behavior and mental processes.
What is psychiatry?
The field of medicine that diagnoses and treats psychological disorders by using medical or psychological forms of therapy.
What are the general questions behind psychology?
Human behavior, consciousness, questions of existence, and human development.
What are the four goals of research?
To explain, describe, predict and control.
What are the five basic steps to the scientific method?
1. Provide a Rationale
2. Conduct the Study
3. Analyze the Data
4. Replicate the Study
5. Communicate the findings.
What is a independent variable?
A variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect on another (dependent) variable.
What is a hypothesis?
A testable prediction about the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.
What is a dependent variable?
A variable showing the effect of the independent variable.
What is a Control Group?
The participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the experimental condition of interest.
What is a Experimental Group?
Participants in an experiment who are exposed to the experimental condition of interest.
What is Random Assignment?
The assignment of participants to experimental and control conditions so that each participant is as likely to be assigned to one condition as the other.
Definition of validity?
The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Definition of reliability?
The extent to which a test gives consistent results.
Definition of correlation and causation?
Correlation: The degree of relationship between two or more variables.
Causation: An effect of one variable on another variable.
What are the three measures of central tendency?
Mean, median, and mode.
What does double blind mean in an experiment?
The procedure that controls experimenter bias and participant bias by preventing experimenters and participants from knowing which participants have been assigned to particular conditions.
What is a confounding variable?
A variable whose unwanted effect on the dependent variable might be confused wit that of the independent variable.
Definition of theory?
An integrated set of statements that summaries and explains research findings and from which research hypotheses can be derived.
Definition of mean, median, and mode?
Mean: The arithmetic average of a set of scores.
Median: The middle score in a set that have been ordered highest to lowest.
Mode: The score that occurs most often.
What sources can be used outside of the scientific method?
Common sense, authority, and reasoning.
What are the ethical standards for conducting research?
Confidentiality, informed consent, freedom to withdraw, ethical treatment of animals and human participants.
What must be done if a participant is deceived?
They must be debriefed.