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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ability to encode, store, and retrieve information over time

--Memories are constructed, not recorded
The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
Elaborative encoding
Actively relating new information to pre-existing knowledge

Visual imagery encoding
-Storing new information as mental images
-Difficult for “non-visual” items
-Involves verbal and visual placeholders
----Activates left/frontal and occipital lobes
Organizational encoding
-Categorizing new information by identifying relationships among items
-e.g., hierarchical organization
----Outlines, flowcharts
Memory storage
The process of maintaining information in memory over time
Sensory storage
-Sensory information for a few seconds (or less)
--Iconic memory (visual info)
--Echoic memory (auditory info)
Short-term storage
-Nonsensory information kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
-Also limited in quantity of info: 7(+-2) units at a time
Keeping information in short-term storage through repetition
-Combining small pieces of info into clusters
--ROY G. BIV, HOMES (great lakes)
Working memory
-Active maintenance of information in short-term storage
-Thinking ahead in chess, doing math in your head
Long-term storage has no known capacity (limitless!)
-Long-term potentiation
--Enhanced neural processing as a result of strengthening synaptic
--Consistently used pathways become stronger
----Remembering & Misremembering classmates
Retrograde amnesia
The inability to retrieve information acquired before a particular time/event
Anterograde amnesia
The inability to transfer new information from short-term to long-term storage
All information in long-term storage is not always accessible
Retrieval cues
Details associated with stored information that helps bring it back to mind
Encoding specificity principle
Retrieval is facilitated in environmental contexts similar to when info was encoded
State dependent retrieval
-Retrieval is facilitated when in the same internal state as when info was encoded
-e.g., mood congruent memory
Explicit Memory
Consciously & intentionally retrieving information
-Semantic memory
--Facts & general knowledge
Episodic memory
Personally experiences events
Implicit Memory
The “unconscious” influence of past experiences on later behavior
-Without intention or awareness
Procedural memory
-The gradual acquisition of behavioral skills as a result of practice or learning
-Involves activation of the motor cortex
-The automatic influence of recent information leading to biased retrieval
-Faster recognition of previously seen stimuli
---Despite less brain activation
-Prime-congruent information is more accessible
-Forgetting information with the passage of time
--After encoding and storage, but before retrieval
-Loss of info levels off after 9 hours
-Quantity of information degrades with time
--From specific to general
Retroactive interference
-Later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
--Learning Spanish after having learned French disrupts memory of French
Proactive interference
-Earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later
--It’s hard to remember my new bank account # because I already memorized my old number
-A lapse in attention that results in forgetting
-Prospective memory
--Remembering to do things in the future
-Failure to retrieve information known to be available in memory
--Tip of the tongue phenomenon
-A retrieval cue is necessary
Memory misattribution
-Assigning memory information to the wrong source
-Failure to remember the source of a memory may lead to Déjà vu experiences
-The tendency to incorporate misleading information into personal recollections
-How fast were the cars going when they _____?
--- -contacted (29) -hit (35) -smashed (40)

-Visualization can lead to false memories
The distorting influence of present, knowledge, beliefs & feelings on recollection of past experiences
Consistency bias
Reconstructing the past to reflect the present
Change bias
Exaggerating differences between past and present
Egocentric bias
Self-flattering inaccuracy
-The intrusive recollection of events we wish to forget
-Amygdala activated for emotional memories
Flashbulb memories
Detailed recollections of when & where we heard about shocking events