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210 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The frontal lobe is to ________ as the parietal lobe is to ________.
moving; sensing movement
In contrast to the other research methods, ___________ yields the most definite evidence of cause/effect conclusions.
experimental method
Why is Wilhelm Wundt considered the "father" of Psychology?
He developed the first psychology laboratory and declared psychology a science.
Which of the following represents the sequence of scientific investigation in psychology?
Observation-Theory-Hypothesis-Evidence
According to your book, the science of Psychology was started in ______ in ____________.
1879; Germany
Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a _______ psychologist.
clinical
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of:
sensory experiences
Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of:
learning
Basic research on persistent human traits like optimism and pessimism is most characteristic of the specialty known as ________ psychology.
personality
Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
evolutionary
Random samples provide _________ estimates of population averages if the samples have small ________.
good; standard deviations
A negative correlation between people's physical health and their marital happiness would indicate that:
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of physical health.
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:
placebo effects
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with their reading skill. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
correlation does not prove causation
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:
dependent variable
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the exact location of a brain lesion?
a CT scan
Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
norepinephrine
Jud suffered a massive stroke which resulted in damage to his corpus callosum. Sometimes, his right hand has to prevent his left hand from strangling himself. Jud's experience best illustrates:
the alien hand syndrome
Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?
Franz Gall
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different:
neural networks
As a sleep-research subject for the past three nights, Alan has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Alan will most likely experience:
an increase in REM sleep
Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Jackie perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the Gestalt organizational principle of:
proximity
After watching a scary television movie, Julie perceived the noise of the wind rattling her front windows as the sound of a burglar breaking into her house. Her mistaken interpretation best illustrates the influence of:
perceptual set
Consciousness is most important for the correct performance of behaviors that:
are novel and challenging
All of the following are true about REM sleep except:
sleepwalking is common during REM sleep (REM is associated with visual dreams, blind people experience REM, and a person's limbs are paralyzed during REM)
Monocular cue is to ________ as binocular cue is to _________.
texture gradient; convergence
Once we have formed a wrong idea about reality, we have more difficulty seeing the truth. This best illustrates the impact of:
top-down processing
People perceive an adult-child pair as looking more alike when told they are parent and child. This best illustrates the effect of:
perceptual set
ATM machines are more complex than VCRs but are easier to operate thanks to the efforts of:
human factors psychologists
The lights along the runway were shrouded in such a thick fog that the pilot of an incoming plane nearly overshot the runway. The pilot was most likely misled by the distance cue known as:
relative clarity
The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates:
perceptual constancy
Drivers sometimes overestimate the distance between their own vehicle and pedestrians who are short because they rely on the distance cue known as:
relative size
Drivers have been observed to detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also conversing on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of:
selective attention
Dissociation has been used as an explanation for:
hypnotic pain relief
Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with _______ sleep.
Stage 4
The experience of insomnia following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates:
withdrawal
Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on:
the circadian rhythm
The visual and auditory areas of the brain are most active during ________ sleep.
paradoxical
If asked to press a button when they are tapped, people can respond in 1/10th of a second. This best illustrates the importance of:
subconscious information processing
A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as _______ sleep.
REM
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:
observational learning
Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. She is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ___________ schedule.
variable-interval
In teacher her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:
shaping
After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog, but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of:
discrimination
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _________ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio
Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) ________.
CS; UCS
For profession baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _________ schedule.
variable-ratio
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:
operant conditioning
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:
biological predispositions
If you have a frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:
classical conditioning
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and the last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates:
the serial position effect
An understand of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for:
encoding
Employing the single word "HOMES" to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of:
a mnemonic device
Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ________ memory.
flashbulb
The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:
memory construction
Certain amnesic patients are incapable of recalling activities, yet they can be conditioned to blink their eyes in response to a specific sound. They have most likely suffered damage to the:
hippocampus
Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between:
explicit and implicit memory
A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of:
recognition
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:
proactive interference
Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the advantage of:
semantic encoding
Brutus believes that men enjoy watching professional football and that women are categorically distinct from men. His gender stereotypes are so strong, however, that he mistakenly reasons from these premises the illogical conclusion that women do not enjoy watching professional football. His reasoning difficulty best illustrates:
belief bias
The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic
A computer program designed to process the information in a psychology textbook and correctly answer multiple-choice questions regarding the text contents illustrates an application of:
artificial intelligence
People are often unable to come up with the simple solutions to some of the three-jugs problems presented in the text because they repeat more complicated solutions that worked in the past. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
a mental set
Maintaining one's conceptions even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited is known as:
belief perseverance
Adding -ed to the word "laugh" means that the action took place in the past. This illustrates one of the rules of English:
semantics
Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max's oversight best illustrates:
a fixation
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:
overconfidence
Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates:
functional fixedness
A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of:
the representativeness heuristic
Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult _______ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult __________ test.
math problem solving; verbal fluency
If course exams assess a student's mastery of a representative sample of course material, they are said to:
have content validity
A performance score on the WAIS that is higher than all but 2 percent of all scores earns an intelligence score of:
130
Compared to North American students, Asian students perform ___________ on math aptitude and achievement tests and they spend __________ time studying math.
better; more
An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have the IQ of:
125
Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as:
savant syndrome
An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 10-year-old was said to have a mental age of:
10
College graduates are the criterion for the _________ of the SAT.
predictive validity
Mark experiences severe mental retardation. Although he speaks very little, he has been trained to put on his own clothes and perform simple tasks under close supervision. Mark's intelligence test score is most likely between:
20 and 35
Comparing the academic accomplishments of those who score extremely low with those who score extremely high on intelligence tests is an effective way to highlight the tests:
validity
Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the:
placenta
A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:
a theory of mind
Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of:
secure attachment
Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ___________ morality.
preconventional
A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ___________ study.
longitudinal
"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
authoritarian
Many researchers believe that people's styles of romantic love in adulthood reflect their childhood:
attachment experiences
A series of small strokes that progressively damage an elderly person's brain is most likely to produce:
dementia
As adults age, they show the greatest declines in __________ intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to _________ recently presented information.
fluid; recall
Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:
memory capacities
A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.
lateral hypothalamus
Regardless of their sexual orientation, women are more likely than men to be aroused by both male and female sexual images. This best illustrates gender differences in:
erotic plasticity
A tendency to assume that employees view work as a job rather than a calling is most characteristic of:
Theory X managers
Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:
cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.
Bulimia patients are most likely to come from families with an unusually high incidence of:
alcoholism and depression
For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates:
360-degree feedback
Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
anorexia nervosa
Compared to sexual intercourse rates among teens in North America, the rates among teens are _________ in Western Europe and ________ in Asia.
higher; lower
Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to _________.
ventomedial hypothalamus; overeat
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
the resolution phase
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system _________ salivation and _________ blood pressure.
decreases; increases
Shondra, an experienced member of her high school swimming team, has just recently joined her high school debate team. A high level of physiological arousal during team competition is likely to ________ her swimming performance and ________ her debate performance.
enhance; disrupt
People who were exposed to different parts of emotion-laden faces detected anger mostly from the _______ and happiness mostly from the _______.
eyes; mouth
Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that one of his research studies had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the:
relative deprivation principle
After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:
an increased respiration rate
An overreactive immune system is to ________ as an underreactive immune system is to _________.
arthritis; AIDS
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:
stress appraisal
Psychologists would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their:
muscle tension
Aerobic exercise __________ the body's production of serotonin and _________ is production of endorphine.
increases; increases
Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty of remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates:
a weak superego
In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.
projective
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:
reaction formation
During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:
the Barnum effect
After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates:
learned helplessness
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of:
a positive self-concept
Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:
repression
Which personality test classifies people in terms of the personality dimensions highlighted by Carl Jung?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:
collectivism
Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with:
collectivism
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a(n):
generalized anxiety disorder
Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a(n):
phobia
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are try to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from:
delusions
After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as "a passive type" and "frightened of his own impulses". This study best illustrated the:
biasing power of diagnostic labels
People around the world may experience the same genetically based disorder quite differently depending on their own personal expectations and the definitions of abnormality common to their unique culture. This best illustrates the need for:
bio-psycho-social perspective
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce:
hallucinations
If researchers discovered that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain structure contribute to bipolar disorder, this would clearly add credibility to:
the medical model
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching the shoreline of any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ___________ perspective.
learning
Janette, a 30-year-old teacher, regularly loses her temper and experiences tension and fatigue. Her behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as psychologically disordered if it is:
personally disabling and a cause of suffering
The avoidance of situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes is most characteristic of:
agoraphobia
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. she is most likely suffering from:
a mood disorder
Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from lithium?
Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement
Classical psychoanalysts were especially interested in:
interpreting the meaning of clients' resistance to therapeutic procedures
For which of the following disorders is psychotherapy most likely to be effective in the long run?
phobias
During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates:
resistance
Several years after his wife's death, Mr. Sanchez remains incapacitated by feelings of sadness. In order to reduce Mr. Sanchez's depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent it. The therapist's approach is more representative of:
cognitive therapy
Which form of therapy is most likely to serve as a preventive mental health strategy?
family therapy
Recognizing that depressed people do not exhibit the self-serving bias common in non-depressed people is most helpful for appreciating which therapeutic approach?
cognitive therapy
The effectiveness of psychotherapy shows little if any connection to:
the level of training and experience of the therapist
The double-blind technique is most likely to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of:
drug therapies
T/F - Human intuition is remarkably accurate and free from error.
FALSE
T/F - Most people seem to lack confidence in the accuracy of their beliefs.
FALSE
T/F - Case studies are particularly useful because of the similarities we all share.
FALSE
T/F - The opinions of 1500 randomly selected people can provide a very accurate picture of the opinions of an entire nation.
TRUE
T/F - As a science, psychology is objective and value-free.
FALSE
T/F - A small amount of brain tissue from a person cannot be distinguished from that of a monkey.
TRUE
T/F - Electrically stimulating a cat's brain at a certain point can cause the animal to cower in terror in the presence of a small mouse.
TRUE
T/F - We ordinarily use only 10 percent of our brains.
FALSE
T/F - Some people can write but are unable to read.
TRUE
T/F - If a blind person uses one finger to read Braille, the brain area dedicated to that finger expands.
TRUE
T/F - Understanding illusions provides important clues to the ordinary mechanisms of perception.
TRUE
T/F - We see objects as having the same size, shape, and color even though the images the objects cast upon our eyes change.
TRUE
T/F - If required to look through a pair of glasses that turns the world upside down, we soon adapt and coordinate our movements without difficulty.
TRUE
T/F - If people are told that an infant is "David", they are likely to see "him" as bigger and stronger than if the same infant is called "Diana".
TRUE
T/F - Psychics have frequently been successful in helping the police solve crimes.
FALSE
T/F - People prone to delinquency and violence have fewer vivid fantasies.
TRUE
T/F - Most university students are "evening" persons whose performance improves throughout the day.
TRUE
T/F - People who sleep seven to eight hours a night tend to outlive those chronically sleep-deprived.
TRUE
T/F - The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery.
FALSE
T/F - Most psychologists believe that dreams provide a key to understanding our inner conflicts.
FALSE
T/F - Humans are the only animals that can learn behaviors merely by observing others perform them.
FALSE
T/F - The study of inner thoughts, feelings, and motives has always occupied a central place in psychology.
FALSE
T/F - Negative reinforcement is another term form punishment.
FALSE
T/F - Psychologists agree that punishment, regardless of its form, has little effect on behavior.
FALSE
T/F - Research indicates that televised violence leads to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the programs.
TRUE
T/F - Memory storage is never automatic; it always takes effort.
FALSE
T/F - Memory aids (for example, those that use imagery and devices for organization) are no more useful than simple rehearsal of information.
FALSE
T/F - When people learn something while intoxicated, they recall it best when they are intoxicated again.
TRUE
T/F - How confident eyewitnesses are about what they saw is an important predictor of their accuracy.
FALSE
T/F - Our experiences are etched on our brain, just as the grooves on a tape receive and retain recorded messages.
FALSE
T/F - We notice evidence that contradicts our beliefs more readily than evidence that is consistent with them.
FALSE
T/F - In general, people underestimate how much they really know.
FALSE
T/F - It takes less compelling evidence to change our beliefs than it did to create them in the first place.
FALSE
T/F - People who lack our words for shapes and colors also seem to perceive these features very differently.
TRUE
T/F - Today's millionaires had well-above average college grades.
FALSE
T/F - In general, people with high intelligence scores are more creative than people with low intelligence scores.
TRUE
T/F - Today's Americans score higher on IQ tests than Americans did in the 1930s.
TRUE
T/F - How quickly 2- to 7-month old babies become bored with a picture is a useful predictor of later intelligence.
TRUE
T/F - As adopted children grow older, their intelligence scores become more similar to those of their biological parents than those of their adoptive parents.
TRUE
T/F - Only human beings seem capable of insight (the sudden realization of a problem's solution).
FALSE
T/F - Most abusive parents themselves were battered or neglected as children.
TRUE
T/F - Nine of 10 high-school seniors agree with the statement, "On the whole, I'm satisfied with myself."
TRUE
T/F - People in their twenties and thirties report greater life satisfaction than those in their sixties and seventies.
FALSE
T/F -The first two years of life provide a good basis for predicting a person's eventual personality traits.
FALSE
T/F - Descriptions of the feelings accompanying orgasm written by men cannot be distinguished from those written by women.
TRUE
T/F - Research has shown that homosexuality is linked with problems in a child's relationships with parents.
FALSE
T/F - When asked "What is it that makes your life meaningful?" most people mention "meaningful work" before anything else.
FALSE
T/F - Married people are less at risk for depression, suicide, and early death than are unattached people.
TRUE
T/F - The polygraph has proved to be extremely effective in detecting lies.
FALSE
T/F - State lottery winners report little change in their general life happiness.
TRUE
T/F - Half the mortality from the 10 leading causes of death is due to people's behavior.
TRUE
T/F - Cancer rates are higher among concentration camp survivors.
FALSE
T/F - Religious faith and health show a strong positive correlation.
TRUE
T/F - Compared to others, pessimists are more than twice as likely to develop heart disease.
TRUE
T/F - Freud believed that boys develop sexual desires for their mother when they are between 3 and 6 years of age.
TRUE
T/F - Psychologists generally agree that painful experiences commonly get pushed out of awareness and into the unconscious.
FALSE
T/F - A surprisingly strong relationship exists between body type or physique and personality.
FALSE
T/F - Most people recognize that personality descriptions based on horoscopes are invalid.
TRUE
T/F - Research has indicated that there is virtually no relationship between a student's being conscientious on one occasion (say, showing up for class on time) and being similarly conscientious on another occasion (say, turning in assignments on time).
TRUE
T/F - The majority of people suffer from low self-esteem.
FALSE
T/F - The American Psychiatric Association believe smoking can be a symptom of psychological disorder.
TRUE
T/F - In some cultures, depression and schizophrenia are non-existent.
FALSE
T/F - Research indicated that in the United States there are more prison inmates with severe mental disorders than there are psychiatric inpatients in all the country's hospitals.
TRUE
T/F - Dissociative identity disorder is a type of schizophrenia.
FALSE
T/F - There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
TRUE
T/F - Psychoanalysis is another word for psychotherapy.
FALSE
T/F - Regardless of their theoretical orientation, therapists agree that self-awareness is the key to overcoming psychological problems
FALSE
T/F - The training and experience of the therapist is a crucial factor in determining therapeutic success.
FALSE
T/F - Many people have found relief from manic-depressive mood swings with a daily dose of a cheap salt.
TRUE
T/F - Electroconvulsive therapy is no longer used in the treatment of psychological disorders.
FALSE