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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what is a hypothesis?

a testable statement about the relationship between two variables.

what is a variable?

a factor or thing that can change - it varies

what is an independent variable?

the variable the investigator alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable.

what is a dependent variable?

the variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has affected it.

what is an experiment?

the method of research in which all variables other than the the IV and DV are controlled.

what is a condition?

an experiment is usually organised so there are two trials where the IV is varied, after which the performances of participants is compared. these are the conditions of the experiment.

what are order effects?

This occurs when a ppt's performance in the second condition of an experiment is affected because they have already done the first. They may do better because of practice, or worse due to tiredness. This may happen in repeated measures.

what are participant variables?

the differences between the people who take part in the study which may affect the results of an experiment that uses an independent groups design

what is standardised procedure?

a set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all ppts when necessary.

what is random allocation?

a procedure for putting ppts into conditions by chance, e.g tossing a coin to see who goes into which condition.

what is counterbalancing?

a procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment.
what are extraneous variables?

a variable that is not the IV but might affect the DV if it is not controlled

what is control?

making sure procedures are the same when necessary. Not controlling procedures leads to the possibility of extraneous variables occurring and confounding the results.

what are instructions?

The written or verbal info given to ppts during the expeiment

what is randomization?

Using chance to produce an order for a procedure, e.g words out of a hat for a list

what is mundane realism?

whether the research is an every day situation, that is life-like, not artificial.

what is ecological validity?

results of the investigation can be said to real life behavior. They are an accurate account of behavior in the real world.

what is objectivity?

not affected by personal biases.

what is a sample?

the small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied.

what is a target population?

the large group of people the researcher wishes to study

what is representativeness?

the sample of ppts is mad up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population

what is generalised?

the results from the sample can be said to apply to the target population

what is a opportunity sample?

people who are members of the TP and area available and willing to take part.

what is a systematic sample?

every nth member of the TP is selected for the sample.

what is stratified sample?

the different groups in the TP are identified then people are randomly selected from those subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the TP.

what is raw data?

The scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarised

what is an average?

A number expressing the central or typical value of a set of data

what is the mean?

average calculated by adding all the scores together and dividing by the total number of the values in the data set.

what is the mode?

most common value in a data set.

what is the median?

The middle value in a set of values when they have been arranged into ascending numerical values.

what is the range?

The difference between the lowest and the highest value in a set of values

what is an anomalous result?

An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of scores.

what is a percentage?

a proportion expressed as a fraction of 100.

what are ethical issues?

Points of concern about what is morally right.

what are the British Psychological Society Guidelines?

The ethical guidelines produced by the BPS in its code of ethics and conduct that govern the work of all practicing and research psychologists and also of psychology students in the UK