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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the four methods of knowing
1. Tenacity
2. Authority
3. Rationalism
4. Empiricism
always believed it. includes superstitions, chance, and causaluty
authority figure, respected source
reason/logic. Something seems self evident, or a given intuition feels right.
observation. can see the same thing differently
combination of rationalism and empiricism
truth or knowledge must be: (4 things)
a. the same for every person
b. independent of opinions
c. in agreement with observation
d. reproducible (and self correcting)
gathering of evidence is external to or independent of the mind. Makes us step out of our "nonconscious ideology"
characterized by an orderly set of procedures, with a series of integrated steps
set of ideas that is abstract and conceptual
a specific and falsifiable prediction regarding the relationship among two or more variables
operational definition
a precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable - observable
The Flow of Research
1. Identify the problem - develop a theory
2. Design the study - develop hypothesis (create operational definitions)
3. Conduct experiment
4. Interpret the data - support/revise theory
5. Communicate results
The philosophical doctrine that every state of human affairs, including every human event, act or decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedent state of affairs
Arguments against determinism (4)
1. Perceived Freedom - feeling that our behavior is free from ext. constraints
2. Prediction - if behavior is predictable, it will be controllable
3. Free will
4. Moral Responsibility - if all behavior is the result of external factors, then we can have no system of moral responsibility.
3 different versions of free will
-behavior is random and chaotic
-desires/values are spontaneously formed
-external constraints may exist, but we can still act without their influence
Determinist response to arguments (4)
1. Perceived freedom - just because we are unaware of the feelings, doesn't mean they don't exist. -we spend time attempting to understand causes of others behavior - suggests we view it as determined.
2. Prediction - impossible, result of many factors
3. Free will - compatible with determinism
4. moral responsibility - we accept that there are certain causes external to control of the individual
for two events to be causally related, they must first be _______
how will we know a cause when one is present?
by generating an operational definition
we can never truly see one event produce another because: (2 reasons)
1. conceptual or empirical intermediaries between a given cause and effect
2. can never rule out the possibility of a third factor
3 elements of an operational definition
1. Cause precedes effect
2. Many third factors ruled out
3. few side conditions exist
rules or standards governing the conduct of the members of a profession
cost/benefit ratio
subjective evaluation of risks and benefits, used to determine if research should be conducted
APA General Principles (5)
A. Beneficence and non maleficence -do good and do no harm
B. Fidelity and Responsibility -responsible, professional, trustworthy
C. Integrity -promote accuracy, honesty, truthfulness
D. Justice -fairness, justice, equality, free of bias
E. Respect for people's right's and dignity
Informed consent
explain nature of research, ultimate purpose, potential risks. Participants are free to withdraw. use language that is understandable. (not required in naturalistic observation)
agreement that identity of subject remains confidential - anonymous is ideal. increases truth in reporting and protects subjects
eliminates demand characteristics, must be justified, must be explained in debriefing
occurs as early as possible, full disclosure - purpose and subject's role. experiment should be educational
Scientific Fraud
fabrication of data, correction of errors
taking credit for the work of someone else "ignorance is not a defence"