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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Hypothesis?
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables.
What is a variable?
A factor or thing that can change - it varies.
Which two variables are tested in an experiment?
In an experiment these variables are called the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV).
What is the Independent Variable (IV)?
The variable which the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable. This variable produces the two conditions of the study.

What is the Dependent Variable (DV)?
The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has affected it.
What is an experiment?
The method of research in which all of the variables other than the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) are controlled. This allows the researchers to identify a cause-and-effect relationship between the IV and the DV.

What is a Condition?

An experiment is usually organised so there are two trials, after which the performances of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment.
What is a Participant?
A person who is selected to take part in a study.
What is Order Effect?
This occurs when a participants performance in the second condition of an experiment is affected because they have already done the first condition. They may do better because of practice or they may do worse due to tiredness.
What are Participant Variables?
The differences between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment.
What are the 3 Experimental Designs?

1. Independent Groups

2. Repeated Measures

3. Matched pairs

Explain Independent groups.
Participants divided into 2 groups, Group 1 takes part in Condition 1, Group 2 takes part on Condition 2.
Advantages of Independent Groups.

-No Order Effects

-Same material can be used

-Participants cannot work out the aim of the study.

Disadvantages of Independent Groups.
-Different people in each condition so may vary results due to participant variables.

Explain Repeated Measures.
1 group of participants, everyone takes part in both conditions.
Advantages of Repeated Measures.

-No participant variables.

-You need less people to get the same amount of results as each person produces two 'scores'.

Disadvantages of Repeated Measures.

-Order effects.

-You may need two tasks, as they cannot do the same task twice.

-Participants may work out the aim and change to suit the hypothesis.

Explain Matched Pairs.

Each participant is matched to another with similar qualities, i.e. Pair Aa and Bb, then A and B would do Condition 1, a nd b would do Condition 2.

Advantages of Matched Pairs.

-Participant variables reduced

-No order effects

-Same material can be used for both.

Disadvantages of Matched Pairs.

-Matching is difficult, time-consuming and not always successful

-Some participant variables still present.

What are Standardised Procedures?
A set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary.

What is Random Allocation?

A procedure for putting participants into conditions by chance.

What is Counterbalancing?
A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment. E.g. 1/2 participants complete Condition 1 then Condition 2, 1/2 complete Condition 2 then Condition 1, which reduces Order Effect.
What is an Extraneous Variable?
An uncontrolled variable which is not the IV but might affect the DV if it is not controlled.

What is Control?
Making sure procedures are the same when necessary. Not controlling procedures leads to the possibility of extraneous variables occurring and confounding the results.
What are Instructions?

The written (or verbal) information given to participants during the experiment.

Each participant receives the exact same instructions.

What are the 3 sections of instructions?


Standardised Instructions


What is Briefing?
What is said to encourage a person to participate. Contains ethical information about consent, anonymity, the right to withdraw, etc.

What are Standardised Instructions?
Clear instructions about exactly what the participant will have to do in the experiment.

What is Debriefing?
Explains the study in detail, so each participant knows the aim of the study. Ethical issues addressed again, emphasising the opportunity to withdraw if they want.
What is Randomisation?
Using chance to produce an order for a procedure. There are no biases with this technique. E.g., a list of words of similar difficulty will be in a random order due to randomisation.
What is Ecological Validity?
The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real-life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world.
What are the 2 types of study?

-Experimental method/lab study

-Natural setting

Advantages of Experimental Method

-The control of EVs means it is easier to identify the cause and the effect.

-Controlled and standardised experiment so they can be replicated by other researchers.

-Objective(not affected by personal biases).

Disadvantages of Experimental Method

-Artificial settings, so lacks ecological validity.

-Participants know they are in an experiment and act differently because of it, therefore affecting the results.

What is a Sample?
The small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied.
What is the Target Population?
The large group of people the researcher wishes to study.

What is a Representative?
The sample of participants is made up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population.
What is Generalisation?
The results from the sample can be said to apply to the target population.
What are the 4 Sampling Methods?
Random, Opportunity, Systematic and Stratified.
Describe Random Sampling.
Every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Random Sampling
Adv- No researcher bias, likely to be representativeDisadv- Time-consuming

Describe Opportunity Sampling.
People who are members of the target population and are available and willing to take part.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Opportunity Sampling.
Adv- Quick and easyDisadv- Not likely to be representative and may have researcher bias.

Describe Systematic Sampling.
Every 'nth' member of the target population is selected for the sample.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Systematic Sampling
Adv- Simple procedure with no researcher biasDisadv- Sample may not be representative.

Describe Stratified Sampling.

The different subgroups in the target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the target population.

Advantage and Disadvantage of Stratified Sampling

Adv- Very Representative

Disadv- Very time-consuming

What is Raw Data?
The scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarised.

How to find the; mean, mode, median and range.

Mean: add all scores then divide by the number of scores.

Mode: find the most frequently occurring value

Median: take the number of scores plus 1 and divide by 2, then count from the first number until you hit the median.

Range: Take the lowest score from the highest number

What is an Anomalous result?
An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of scores.
What can a bar chart be used for?
To display data that are in categories.
What can a line graph be used for?
To display data that are connected each other.
What are Ethical Issues?

Points of concern about what is morally right.

What are the British Psychological Society (BPS) Guidelines?
The ethical guidelines produced by the BPS in its Code of Ethics and Conduct (2006) that govern the work of all practising and research psychologists and also of psychology students in the UK.
What are the 4 'Code of Ethics' Guidelines all British Psychologists must keep to?





Why must psychologists have respect?
They should respect people as individuals and avoid unfair or prejudiced practices. The data must be confidential.

Why must psychologists have competence?
They should only give advice if they are qualified to do so.
Why must psychologists have responsibility?
They must protect the participants from harm.
Why must psychologists have integrity?
They should behave with honesty and fairness in all their interactions with all people.