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57 Cards in this Set

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What is the Multi Store Model of Memory?
The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores.
What is Encoding?

The first stage in the MSM,


changing information so that it can be stored.

What is Storage?

The second stage in the MSM,


holding information in the memory system

What is Retrieval?

The third stage in the MSM,


recovering information from storage.

1. What is the Sensory Store?


2. How long does it hold information for?


3. What is its capacity?

1. The first place of storage in the MSM,


holds information received from the senses.


2. Less than one second.


3. Very limited.

1. What is the Short-term Store?


2. How long does it hold information for?


3. What is its capacity?


1. The second place of storage in the MSM, information comes here if attention is drawn to it in the sensory store.


2. Less than one minute.


3. Approx. 7 chunks of information.

1. What is the Long-term Store?


2. How long does it hold information for?


3. What is its capacity?


1. The last and largest place of storage in the MSM, information comes here after rehearsal from the short-term store.


2. Up to a lifetime.


3. Unlimited.


Aim and Method of Peterson and Peterson (1959)


Aim: To see if rehearsal is necessary to hold information in the short-term store.


Method: Participants remembered 3 letters (GYK, MWT), but immediately counted backwards in 3s for different lengths of time, then told to recall the letters in order.

What are the Results and Conclusion of Peterson and Peterson (1959)?

Results: Participants forgot virtually all information after 18 seconds.


Conclusion: We cannot hold information in the short-term store without rehearsal.

Evaluate the Peterson and Peterson study.

1. Unrealistic lab study, therefore lacks ecological validity


2. Helps us understand why it is so difficult to remember reg numbers, etc. without rehearsal.


3. Doesn't explain why we do not rehearse some everyday things but still remember them.

What is the Aim and Method of Murdock (1962)?

Aim: To support the MSM.


Method: Participants learnt a list of words one at a time, for two seconds each, then recalled the words in any order.

Results and Conclusion of Murdock

Results: The last words were recalled first (the recency effect), then the first words (the primacy effect), but the middle words were forgotten.


Conlusion: This provides evidence for separate S-T and L-T Stores. The recency effect shows the last words were still in S-T, primacy shows the first words were in L-T.

Evaluate the Murdock study.

1. Unrealistic lab study, therefore lacks ecological validity


2.


3.

Practical applications of MSM
This explains why registration numbers, postcodes etc. never exceed 7 numbers.
What is Reconstructive Memory?
Altering our recollection of things so they make more sense to us.
What are the Aim and Method of Bartlett (1932)?

Aim: To see if unfamiliar information would be altered when remembered.


Method: Participants read 'War of the Ghosts', then asked to retell as accurately as possible several times in the following weeks.

What are the Results and Conclusion of Bartlett?

Results: It was difficult to remember spirit-related parts and parts that didn't make sense were changed. Each time, the story changed some more.


Conclusion: Memory is influenced by our own beliefs.

Evaluate Bartlett.

1. Explains why different cultures find it harder to agree.


2. Difficult to measure accuracy of stories.


3. 'War of the Ghosts' is not similar to everyday life, therefore lacks ecological validity.

Aim and Methods of Wynn and Logie?

Aim: To see if familiar stories are recalled more accurately then unfamiliar like in Bartlett's study.


Method: University students retold their first week, several times throughout the year.

Results and Conclusion of Wynn and Logie?

Results: Accuracy of recall remained the same throughout, unlike Bartlett's findings.


Conclusion: Memories for familiar events will not change over time.

Evaluate Wynn and Logie.

1. Difficult to measure the accuracy


2. We cannot know if the first week story was ever actually true.


3. Relevant to everyday life, therefore has high ecological validity.

Practical Applications of Reconstructive Memory?

Helps us understand why two people can have two different versions of the same story.


We also must be weary of this with eyewitness accounts, as they could change to make sense to the witness.

What are Levels of Processing?

The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it.

Describe the shallowest level of processing.
Structural Processing, thinking about the physical appearance of a word being learnt.
Describe the second deepest level of processing.
Phonetic Processing, thinking about the sound of the word being learnt.
Describe the deepest level of processing.
Semantic Processing, thinking about the meaning of the word being learnt.
Aim and Method of Craik and Lockhart.

Aim: To see if the type of question asked about words affects the number of words recalled.


Method: Participants read a list of words, one at a time, and answered closed questions (either require structural, phonetic or semantic)about them. They then had to identify the words they were asked about.

Results and Conclusion of Craik and Lockhart.

Results: Participants identified; 70% of words requiring semantic processing, 35% phonetic and 15% structural.


Conclusion: The deeper information is processed, the more likely it is to be remembered.

Evaluate Craik and Lockhart.

1. Doesn't explain why deeper levels of processing help memory.


2. Could it be the extra effort needed that helps us remember instead?


3. Unrealistic lab study, therefore lacks ecological validity.

What is interference?
Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information that we have learnt.
What is Retroactive Interference?
When recently learnt information hinders our ability to recall old information we have learnt.
What is Proactive Interference?
When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall newer information.
Aim and Method of Underwood and Postman.

Aim: To see if new learning interferes with previous learning.


Method: 2 groups; Group A learnt List A, then List B; Group B only learnt List A. Both groups then recalled List A.

Results and Conclusion of Underwood and Postman.

Results: Group B recalled List A more accurately than Group A.


Conclusion: New learning causes people to recall old information less accurately.

Practical Application of Interference?
Develop better study habits, don't study two similar subjects in one night, etc.
What is Context?
The general setting/environment in which activities happen.
Aim and Method of Godden and Baddeley.

Aim: To see if learning and being tested in the same context will differ from learning and being tested in different settings.


Method: Group 1 learnt underwater, recalled underwater; Group 2 learnt underwater, recalled on shore; Group 3 learnt on shore, recalled on shore; Group 4 learnt on shore, recalled underwater.

Results and Conclusion of Godden and Baddeley.

Results: Groups 1 & 3 recalled 40% more than 2 & 4.


Conclusion: Recall of information will be better if it happens in the same context that learning takes place.

Evaluate Godden and Baddeley.

1. Not similar to everyday life, therefore lacks ecological validity.


2. Cannot be generalised, as it was conducted on deep-sea divers who could have been more trained in both conditions than the average person.


3.

What is the Hippocampus?

A brain structure that is crucial for memory.

What is Retrograde Amnesia?

Loss of memory for events that occurred before brain damage.


What is Anterograde Amnesia?

Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage.


What is Reliability (in the context of eyewitness testimony)?
The extent to which EWT can be regarded as accurate.

What are the factors which affect eyewitness accounts?

Leading Questions, Unfamiliar Faces and Context.

What is a Leading Question?
A question which hints at a particular type of answer.
What is a Cognitive Interview?
A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event.

Aim and Method of Loftus and Palmer.

(Leading Questions)


Aim: To see if leading questions affect reliability.


Method: Participants watch car accident films. Some were asked how fast the car was going when it 'hit' the other, others were asked with the word 'smashed'.

Results and Conclusion of Loftus and Palmer.

Results: Participants who heard 'smashed' gave a higher speed than those who heard 'hit'


Conclusion: Leading questions reduce accuracy of recall.

Aim and Method of Bruce and Young.

Aim: To see if familiarity affects accuracy of face identification.


Method: Lecturers were on CCTV, shown to participants. They were asked to identify the face.

Results and Conclusion of Bruce and Young.

Results: The lecturers' students identified the faces better than other students.


Conclusion: Previous familiarity helps when identifying faces.

Aim and Method of Geiselman et al.

Aim: To see if recreating context affects witness account accuracy.


Method: Participants watched a violent crime film, 2 days later they were interviewed. 1/2 went to the recreated scene.

Results and Conclusion of Geiselman et al.

Results: Those who were at the recreated scene recalled more accurately than others.


Conclusion: Recreating context during interviews will increase accuracy. This is a cognitive interview.

Evaluate Loftus and Palmer, Bruce and Young and Geiselman et al.

1. Watching a video isn't the real thing, therefore lacks ecological validity.


2. The 'real thing' may have been unexpected, therefore this lacks ecological validity again.


3. There could be extraneous variables which affect eyewitness testimony that these didn't address, like stereotyping.

What is Stereotyping?
An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others.
Aim and Method of Cohen.

Aim: To see if stereotypes can affect memory.


Method: Participants watched a video of a man and woman eating in a restaurant. 1/2 were told she was a librarian, 1/2 were told she was a waitress. They then described her behaviour and personality.

Results and Conclusion of Cohen.

Results: The two groups gave entirely different descriptions, each matching either 'waitress' or 'librarian'.


Conclusion: Stereotypes reduce accuracy of accounts.

Practical applications of eyewitness testimony


1. (L&P) When talking to witnesses, police avoid leading questions.


2. (B&Y) Identity parades alone may have limited use when trying to identify criminals


3. (G) Taking witnesses back to the scene may help recall.