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29 Cards in this Set

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Multi-store

The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores
Sensory store
Hold information received from the senses for a very short period of time

Recency effect

Information received later is recalled better than earlier information
Primacy effect
The first information received is recalled better than the subsequent information
Reconstructive memory
Alerting out recollection of things so that they make more sense to us
Levels of processing

The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it

Interference

Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information that we have learnt

Retroactive interference

When information we have recently learnt hinders our ability to recall information we have learnt previously

Proactive interference
When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information
Context
The general setting or environment in which activities happen
Hippocampus

A brain structure that is crucial for memory

Anterograde amnesia
Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage
Retrograde amnesia

Loss of memory for events that happened before the brain damage occurred

Reliability
In the context of eyewitness testimony, the extent to which it can be regarded as accurate
Leading questions
A question that hints a particular type of answer is required
Cognitive interview

A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event

Encoding
Changing information so that it can be stored
Storage
Holding information in the memory system
Retrieval
Recovering information from storage
Short-term store

Holds information approximately 7 chunks of information for a limited amount of time

Long-term store

Holds a vast of information for a very long period of time

Structural processing
Thinking about the physical appearance of words to be learnt
Phonetic processing
Thinking about the sound of words to be learnt
Murdock (memory)

Multi-store - Lists of words
Evaluation:
1. Everything we learn doesn't have to be rehearsed: life events
2. Ecological validity - Realistic tasks aren't list of words

Craik and Lockhart (memory)
L.O.P - Lists of words
Evaluation:
1. Doesn't explain why deeper L.O.P helps memory
2. Ecological validity - Realistic tasks aren't list of words
Bartlett (memory)

Reconstructive memory - War of Ghosts
1. War of ghosts is a confusing story
2. Not similar to everyday experiences

Underwood & Postman (memory)
Interference - Pairs of words
Godden & Baddeley

Context - Underwater testing

Loftus and Palmer
ETW - Leading questions
Evaluation:
1. Watching films not the same as real-life experiences
2.Other factors that cause EWT to be unreliable