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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


An aim is a general statement as to why the study is being conducted


A hypothesis is a

- clear statement



-formulated at the beginning of the research process

What is the independent variable

An aspect of the experiment that can be changed by the experimenter

Dependant variable

The dependant variable is the thing that is measured

What is an extraneous variable

An extraneous variable is something that can affect the experiment that isn’t the independent variable or dependant variable

What is an extraneous variable

An extraneous variable is something that can affect the experiment that isn’t the independent variable or dependant variable

What is standardisation and how can an experiment be standardised

Standardisation is a way that experimenters can control extraneous variables. It can be done using standard instructions or a standardised debrief.

What is a laboratory experiment

A lab experiment is an experiment that gives the experimenter control over what happens. They can establish cause and effect.

What are the advantages to lab experiments

Lab experiment advantages :

- It is possible to claim the IV is the cause

-Extraneous variables can be controlled

-It can be replicated

What are the disadvantages to lab experiments

Lab experiments are:

- Low in ecological validity since they take part in an artificial setting

- Extraneous variables outside the experimenters control may still be present

- The experiment can still be affected by things such as experimenter bias or demand characteristics are

What is a field experiment

A field experiment is an experiment that takes place in the natural world.Participants are unaware that they are part of a study.The independent variable is still manipulated .

What are the are the advantages to a field experiment

advantages of a field experiment :

- Happen in the real world and are therefore high in ecological validity.

- Are void of experimenter effects since participants are unaware they are part of an experiment

What are the disadvantages to field experiments

The disadvantages of field experiments

- Extraneous variables are hard to control

-can be time consuming and expensive

-cannot allow for voluntary informed consent or right to withdraw

What is a natural experiment

A natural experiment experiment is where the experimenter does not change the IV. The conditions are fixed by natural occurrence.

What are the advantages to natural experiments

- the researcher does not control the IV and therefore ne’s are the highest in ecological validity

-They are useful when variables cannot be manipulated

What are the disadvantages to natural experiments

- the experimenter has no control over Extraneous variables and therefore cause and effect cannot be identified

- Are time limited as the experimenter has to wait for interesting thing to occur

What are independent groups

- Each participant is selected randomly for one group

- less likely to experience practice or order effects

- less likely to guess demand characteristics

-is effected by participant variables

What is repeated measures

- Each participant appears in all conditions

-minimises participant variables

-practice effect is more likely

What are matched pairs

-matched pairs means that a participant will only take part in one condition and will be matched on a key variable to another participant.

-This minimises participant variables, order/practice effect and demand characteristics.

-takes a long time to match the pairs