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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Extraneous variable
A variable (other than the IV) that may affect the DV and so spoil the experiment.
(e.g. personal characteristics, order effects, non-standard procedures, etc)
Confounding variable
A variable other than the IV that has an unwanted effect on the DV, making it impossible to determine which of the variables has produced the change in the DV
Individual participant differences
• An extraneous or confounding variable
• Uncontrolled personal characteristics or experiences of individual participants that may impact the DV
• Minimised/controlled by using a repeated measures or matched participants experimental design
Order effect
An extraneous or confounding variable, occurs when a participant’s performance is influenced by the order in which treatment is presented
Can be managed with counterbalancing, or using an independent groups experimental design
Systematically changing the order of treatments or tasks in a ‘balanced’ way, to 'counterbalance' unwanted order effects
Operational hypothesis
Hypothesis that specifies how the variables will be tested in the research study.
• The IV and DV are operationalised (made testable)
• The population is stated
Kinds of sampling
• Convenience sampling
• Random sampling
• Stratified sampling
Random allocation
• Participants are randomly allocated to the control group or the experimental group
• Ensures that groups are fairly equivalent in personal characteristics, and minimises the effects of extraneous variables
Control group
The group that is not exposed to the IV, and is used as a comparison for the experimental group.
Determines whether changes in the DV are likely to occur as a normal part of the behaviour of the participants in the experiment.
Types of experimental research designs
Repeated-measures design
Matched-participant design
Independent-groups design
Independent groups experimental design
Each participant is allocated to only one of the groups in the experiment
Repeated measures experimental design
Participants are involved in both experimental and control groups
Matched participants experimental design
Participants are matched with someone similar to them in relevant characteristics that may influence the DV (experience, intelligence), and one is put into the control group, and the other in the experimental group
Psychology defenition
A person's thoughts and feelings which are personal, or subjective, and cannot be dirictely observed.
Steps of psychological research
1) Identify research problem
2) Construct research hypothesis 3) Design method
4) Collect data 5) Analyse data 6) Interpret data
7) Report research findings
Research Hypothesis
The casual relationship between the ID and DV to be tested, that is the IV(s) will cause the DV(s) to change in a particular way.
Operational hypothesis
States how the variables being studied will observed, manipulated and measured, and outlines the population.
Placebo effect / placebo
Placebo effect refers to an improvment in health or wellbeing due to the individuals belief that the reatment given will be effective. A placebo is an inactive substance used on the control group to counterbalance the placebo effect.
Experimenter effect
Occurs when there is a change in participants responses due to the researchers expectations, biases or actions, rather than the IV.
eg. experimenter expectancy, self-fufilling prophecy, experimenter bias.
Types of self-report methods
Questionares, surveys, interviews
Advantages and limiations of self-report methods
Advantages - effiecient in collecting data from larges numbers, quickly
Limiations - reply on people being honest and accurate, effected by social desirablity(need to create socially desireable impression of oneself)
Descriptive vs. inferntial statistics
Descriptive = used for analsying, organsing, summarising, and describing the results (eg. graphs, averages)
Inferential = used for interpreting and giving meaning to results (eg. statistical significance, p-values)
Statistical significance
Is used to indicate whether the difference in the results obtained from the experiment and control groups is a real difference and not due to chance factors alone
The significance level of any difference
(P stands for probablity)
In psych the accepted level is P≤0.05, that is 5% chance th difference in mean scores obtained was most likely due to chance.
A generalisation is
a decision or judgement about how widely the findings of a study can be applied, particularly to other members of the poluation.
6 participants rights
1) confidentiality 2) voluntary participation 3) withdrawal rights 4) informed consent procedures 5) debriefing 6) use of deception
Strengths and limitations of independent group design
Strengths = Quick, easy and cheap, no order effects
Limitations = Little control over participant variables
Strengths and limitations of matched participant design
• Control over participant variables
• No order effects
• Time consuming and potentially more expensive
• Loss of unmatched participants (can't necessarily all be used)
• Need more participants
Strengths and limitations of repeated measures design
Strengths = control over participant variables, fewer participants needed
Limitations = order effects (counterbalancing can't always be used)
Convenience sampling
Sample choice based on availability to the researcher, likely that it's not representative of the population
Random sampling
Every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected, good chance of unbiased, representative sample
Stratified sampling
Target population is divided into strata (based on relevant characteristics), participants are selected from each stratum in the same % they appear in the target population