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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What did Holmes & Rahe create?

What associations did DeLongis et al. daily hassles checklist show?

Major life events scale

Associations with psychosocial outcomes

Elliott & Eisendorfer considered stressor characteristics to be made of what three types of stressors? Ex.

Acute stressor (limited ex. surgery)

Chronic stressor (prolonged/repeated ex. job strain)

Stressor sequences - prolonged stressor with several challenges (ex. divorce)

When stress is seen as a response, it is primarily an ________ phenomenon


The adrenal glands release what two hormones during stress? These hormones are called?

Epinephrine (adrenaline)



When the stressor is removed/evaded, what system takes over?

Returns us to ___________

Parasympathetic nervous system 


Parasympathetic nervous system


What does the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis do? What main hormone does it secrete?

What does this hormone help do?

Give three reasons why it is hard to measure this hormone

Adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids


Helps the SNS and return body to homeostasis

Influenced by diet/exercise/mood

Individual differences average output

Inconsistent results across stressors

During chronic stress response, what is the first thing that occurs?

This leads to what three things?

Cortisol stops working over time as HPA axis becomes dysregulated

Impaired immune function = increased infection and inflammation

Consistently high blood glucose, mobilization of triglycerides to visceral fat cells, maturation of fat cells

Hippocampal atrophy

How does exercise help with stress?

Repeated stress of exercise helps the body adapt to stress which leads to higher recovery

What is the tend-and-befriend response?

Associated with the release of what hormone?

Tending - caring for children in stress

Befriend - affiliating with others and seeking social contact during stress


When stress is seen as a transaction between person and environment it is seen as a _________ phenomenon

Subjective - cognitive appraisals, individual differences

What is coping?

What is the transactional model of stress and coping?

Things we think (internal) and actions (external) we do to reduce negative aspects of a stressful situation 

Things we think (internal) and actions (external) we do to reduce negative aspects of a stressful situation

What are the two main functions of coping?

Alter the problem causing stress

Regulation the emotional response

What are three types of coping?

Problem-focused - Direct efforts to solve problem

Emotion-focused - Efforts to manage emotions made by the stressful situation through cognitive and behavioural approaches

Relationship-focused - Efforts to maintain & manage social relationships during stressful periods

What are two ways used by problem-focused coping?

When do people tend to use problem-focused coping?

Changing the situation (thinking of options/making a plan/increasing efforts to make things work)

Changing ourselves (taking a course/learning new skills/seeking new information)

When they think their resources/demands of the situation are changeable

Give some examples of emotion-focused coping

When do people tend to use emotion-focused coping?

Redefining the situation

When they think they can do little to change the stressful conditions

Give some examples of relationship-focused coping

What happens in dyadic, relationship-focused coping?

Partners work together, recognize their interdependence in dealing with a shared stressor, and work at it. (Ex. managing household finances)

What are four general recommendations for successful coping?

What are the four most important coping methods (some overlap from above)

Positive reappraisal

Emotion expression

Not ruminating


Engaging in positive emotions/appraisal

Finding benefits/meaning

Engaging in emotional expression

Adapting to a stressor and move on

What is stress spillover?

What is stress crossover?

Stress from other places, like work, spilling over to other areas, like home (occurs within person)

Stress from other places, like work, is transferred to other people, like kids/spouse (occurs between people)

What three things can burnout cause?

What two things is burnout the result of?

Emotional exhaustion


Compromised sense of self-competence

Chronic high stress and little personal control

At what point/from what criteria is acute stress disorder diagnosed?

At what point/from what criteria is PTSD diagnosed?

When experiencing anxiety/dissociation within 1 month of exposure to extreme traumatic stressor (witnessing a death)

Severe anxiety for more than 1 month from traumatic experiences

What are the eight DSM-5 criteria for PTSD?

The stressor 
Negative alterations in cognition/mood
Alterations in arousal 
Lasting for over a month
Functional significance

The stressor



Negative alterations in cognition/mood

Alterations in arousal

Lasting for over a month

Functional significance


What are five reasons why some people experience PTSD instead of PT growth?

Negative childhood experiences/traumas

Low openness to experience/low extraversion

Low social support

Maladaptive coping responses

Being a woman/low SES/low education

What does the direct effects model say?

Social support directly protects health 

Social support directly protects health

What does the buffering hypothesis say?

Social support buffers the impact of stress/environmental demands on the person

Social support buffers the impact of stress/environmental demands on the person

What is a social network? What do they operate through?

What is social support?

Number of social relationships (family/friends/group membership/online networks); social integration
Operate via direct effects 

Functional content and quality of social relationships

Number of social relationships (family/friends/group membership/online networks); social integration

Operate via direct effects

Functional content and quality of social relationships

What are some ways social networks can influence us?

Up to how many degrees of separation?



Through what three mechanisms does Facebook undermine well-being?

Lack of attention, social comparisons, fear of missing out

What are the five types of social support?

What do they operate via?









What does the matching principle say? Ex?

What is considered the most widely effective type of support?

Most effective support is that which matches the stressor - Informational support for an exam

Emotional support

What are the two types of bad support?

Protective buffering - keeping information from someone to protect him/her

Solicitousness - expressing concern which increases dependence

What explanation does the buffering hypothesis offer for why there are physiological and psychological benefits from HAI (human-animal-interactions)?

What chemical is released during HAI?

HAI reduces the impact of stress on health 


HAI reduces the impact of stress on health


Why can HAI help with AIDS patients?

Why can HAI help with AIDS patients?

AIDS patients may be abandoned by friends/family, pets won't abandon

What is a health disparity?

What 3 things can it affect?

Can cause differences in _______ and _______ rates

Difference in quality of health & health care between groups

1 - How frequently people get disease

2 - How many people get sick

3 - How often the disease causes death

Morbidity; mortality

Name some stats about indigenous people's health in Canada

How do First Nations people self-rate their health, how do other adults in Canada?

How do First Nations on-reserve self-rate their health, how does the general Canadian population?

What two health conditions are much more prevalent in First Nations on-reserve vs the general Canadian population?

Diabetes and high blood pressure

Diabetes and high blood pressure

Has diabetes in First Nations people been linked to genetics?

What are two reasons why low income and education are linked to poverty and higher blood glucose levels?

Nope, was rare 100 years ago

Poverty = poorer diet

Stress = ^ cortisol = ^ high blood sugar

How much more prevalent are suicide rates of First Nations compared to the general Canadian population?

Over double 

Over double

What is transgenerational trauma?


Early traumas having lasting effects on communities that are still felt today via direct and indirect mechanisms

Epigenetics - genes passed down that changed from environmental factors

Modeling parents

Lack of self-esteem

What is seen with percentage of Canadians reporting diabetes in relation to their income level? In life expectancy? In general health?

Linear decrease of diabetes from lowest income to highest income; same thing; sammmeee

What were the Whitehall studies?

In Whitehall 1 (1967-1977), what relationships were seen in: mortality and grade; employment hierarchy and life span; status and obesity, smoking, leisure, activity, illness, BP?

In Whitehall 2 (1985-), social gradient was linked to a number of what diseases?

Longitudinal studies looking at social determinants of health from 1967- , in British servants

Lower grade = higher mortality; more senior = longer life; lower status = higher obesity, smoking, lower leisure, lower activity, higher illness, higher BP

Heart disease/cancer/lung disease/GI disease/suicide/depression/back pain/etc

Robert Sapolsky found lower-ranking males have more ongoing, uncontrollable social stress, why?

This leads to?

This leads to?

Displacement aggression in the group (top baboon kicks lower one, he kicks lower one, etc.)

Chronically higher stress in low-ranking members

Higher cortisol and health issues

Increased asthma symptoms and impaired pulmonary function is associated with what two things?

Why do low SES people interpret stressors as more threatening than higher SES people?

Low family support; higher neighbourhood problems (may shape youth's health behaviours)

Live and work in unpredictable/dangerous settings

What does the shift and persist model believe?

What are meant by the terms?

Some people can overcome low-SES adversity

Shift = shift oneself to accept stress for what it is and adapt via reappraisal

Persist = enduring life via maintaining meaning and optimism

What does the minority stress model say?

Stigma/prejudice/discrimination creates hostile social environment --> leading to increased stress

How do suicide rates of transgendered people compare to general population?

What % of trans people have been refused medical care?

77% in Ontario considered, 43% attempted; 1.6% of general pop attempted


What are two ways AIDS discrimination and stigma also fuel the epidemic?

Prevents people from talking about their HIV status with partners/people they share needles with

Fear of rejection/confidentiality prevents people from getting tested

As a general conclusion, what are the five factors in health disparities?



Control/perceived control


Access to health services

What are the two main factors related to the patient's evaluation of health care?

Technical quality of care

Quality of interaction with the provider

Name some poor communication demonstrated by physicians

Name some poor communication demonstrated by patients

Monitors/attention subjects tend to be concerned and distressed, leading them to? How do you motivate them?

Blunters/avoidance subjects tend to be overwhelmed by threatening information, leading them to? How do you motivate them?

Seek information

Give detailed information about risks & strategies

Avoid information

Be short, succinct, non-threatening, and simple in relaying information

Dissatisfied patients are less likely to do what 4 things?

What 2 things are they more likely to do?

- Adhere to regimes

- Use medical services in the future

- Get medical check-ups

- Disclose CAM use

- Change doctors/make complaints

- Consider CAM

What are four types of individual differences in recognizing symptoms?

What are two types of situational factors in recognizing symptoms?

- Bodily awareness

- Neuroticism/hypochondriasis/facetiousness

- Cultural differences in meaning/reporting symptoms

- Positive/negative mood

- Stress/boredom

- Salient situations (ex. med students)

What three things affect our interpretation of symptoms?

Prior experience


Seriousness of symptoms

What are illness schemas?

What are the 5 distinct components

People's concepts of health/illness that influence how they react to symptoms & illness 

People's concepts of health/illness that influence how they react to symptoms & illness

What are the four stages of delay in seeking treatment for symptoms?

What is the difference between compliance and adherence?

Compliance - following medical instructions of any kind

Adherence - following prescribed behavioural and treatment regimen/routines

What is the placebo effect?

A medical procedure that gives an effect because of its therapeutic intent and not its specific nature, whether chemical or physical

What 5 parts of a placebo influences its effectiveness?

How does medical formality influence placebo?


More medical formality (machines/medications/uniforms/etc) gives more placebo 


More medical formality (machines/medications/uniforms/etc) gives more placebo

Did physician warmth/confidence/empathy increase or decrease placebo effect?

RCTs (Randomized Clinical Trials) are designed to measure the _________ of a drug under optimal conditions? How does this differ from effectiveness?

How are placebos controlled for?


Efficacy; how well the medication works in the real world/by the average patient

Creating a placebo in the control group and comparing to the treatment group

What is a nocebo effect? Two examples?

In CAM treatments, how effective is:


Tai Chi



Believing a harmless substance is harmful/toxic and can result in physical symptoms; gluten sensitivity; MSG

Homeopathy - no better than placebo

Tai Chi - can prevent age-related health issues in older people

Yoga/meditation - Epigenetics in relation to stress and immune function

Acupuncture - Effective for pain and migraines