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26 Cards in this Set

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Federalism

-Divides power between at least 2 Political units; the central government and the smaller subunits underneath it



- All units have sovereignty

Sovereignty

Supreme power to regulate it's own internal affairs without outside interference

Unitary system

-A government where the national government has all the authority



-80% of countries have this system


Confederal government

-When the state's have all the power



-U.S. under the articles of Confederation

National Supremacy Clause

The national law is supreme

Necessary and Proper Clause

-The ability to make law as necessary



-National power

Full faith clause and credit clause

- When one state passes a law and someone moves they have respect that law



-If you move to a new state that state cannot treat you differently

Privileges and Immunites

prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner

Dual Federalism (Layer Cake)

Where the different levels of government is distinct and they don't interact with each other

Cooperative Federalism (Marable Cake)

Federal government worked with state government

Picket fence Federalism

Within a picket there is cooperation among The different levels of government

Coercive Federalism

When the federal government "blackmails" the states to get what they want

New Federalism

Shift of decision making power to state government

Categorical Grant

Money for a specific purpose

Block grant

Money that's not for a specific purpose

Amendments

A change

Amendment 1

-Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Assembly,




-Right to PetitionThe government cannot support any religion or prevent citizens from worshiping as they please; thegovernment cannot censor people or the media; people have a right to gather peaceably; and people cancomplain to the government. There are exceptions to these rights.

Amendment 2

-Right to Bear Arms



-People have the right to own weapons.

Third Amendment

-Quartering Troops



-Citizens cannot be forced to house soldiers in their homes during peacetime and only during wartime as thelaw requires.

Fourth Amendment

-Right to Privacy, Search Warrants



-Officers of the law must get a warrant from a judge to search and take property or persons. A judge musthave a “reasonable cause” to issue a warrant to officers and the warrant must describe the place to besearched and the items or persons to be taken. There are exceptions to this amendment.

Fifth Amendment
Rights of the Accused, Due Process, Right to Remain Silent



-A grand jury must determine if there is enough evidence to send to trial a person accused of a serious crime.A person cannot be put on trial more than once for the same crime (double jeopardy). A person has the rightnot to answer questions asked by officials. The government must follow certain fair procedures (due process)before it can take away life, liberty, or property.

Sixth Amendment
-Right to a Speedy and Fair Trial, Right to Face Accusers, Right to a Lawyer



-An accused person will not be held in jail for a long period of time before their trial begins. An accused personwill also get a public trial before a fair jury. An accused person has a right to face their accusers. If anaccused person cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided to defend them.

Seventh Amendment
-Civil Suits



-A jury may be provided if one person sues another person and the case involves more than $20 (these casesare generally no longer heard in federal court).

Eighth Amendment

-Reasonable Bail and Punishment



-Bail will not be set unusually high as to make it impossible for someone to pay. No cruel or unusualpunishment will be used against an accused or a convicted person.

Ninth Amendment
-People’s Rights



-Citizens have rights beyond those written in the Constitution and they cannot be taken away.

Tenth Amendment
-States’ Rights



-Those powers not given to the federal government are given to the states.