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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the peak pressure in the atria and ventricles during systole? diastole?
- RA & LA: around 5mmHg

- RV: 35 mmHg

- LV: 120 mmHg

- during diastole the pressure in the ventricles goes to about 0
what is the formula for cardiac output?
- total volume of blood through systemic or pulmonary circulation per unit time (ml/min)

- CO = HR (beats/min) X SV (volume/beat)
what is the stroke volume?
- the volume ejected with each beat
how are velocity (V) and flow (Q) related? what does this do to velocity if area is increased? decreased?
- velocity (cm/min) = flow (cm^3/min) / area (cm^2)

- if area is increased the velocity decreases, if area is decreased the velocity increases
why does velocity decrease in capillaries? what happens to flow?
- velocity decreases b/c there is a great increase in capillary cross sectional area

- flow is constant

- the decrease in velocity allows gas exchange in the capillaries
what does the ultrasonic doppler flow meter measure? is coronary flow included?
- measures cross sectional area of aorta & velocity of flow in order to calculate flow

- A x V = Q

- no this technique measures CO minus coronary flow
what is the formula for calculating mean arterial pressure?
- mean arterial pressure = systole-diastole/3 + diastole
what is the formula for the pressure drop? how does this relate to flow & pressure drop between arterial & venous systems?
- pressure drop = Q x R

- if you know flow & pressure difference b/w aorta & venous system (venous system negligible) then you can calculate total peripheral resistance

- TPR is increased in diseases like HBP
what is poiseuille's law in terms of flow, pressure drop & radius?
- Q = deltaP x pi x r^4 / 8hL
- or deltaP = Q 8hL / pi x r^4

- basically radius is really important: if radius is increased a little the pressure drop decreases & flow increases
what does a swan-ganz catheter do?
- measures right side pressures

- inserts just outside of RA then pulled in with flow of blood

- can see RA & RV pressures & go into pulmonary artery to get to pulmonary wedge pressure and see pressure in LA
what does the pulmonary wedge pressure tell you?
- pressure downstream in pulmonary capillaries - really only way to look at LA pressure
what is the pathway for a LV catheter?
- insert into femoral artery, goes opposite of blood flow

- can get pressure in LV & aorta
what is the a wave of wiggers diagram? c wave? v wave?
- a wave is after p wave on EKG - it is increased pressure in RA

- c wave is the deformation of the mitral valve due to ventricular contraction & deformation into the atria

- v wave is increasing pressure in LA from return of pulmonary veins --> when ventricle relaxesthen mitral valve opens
what causes the mitral valve to open? closure?
- pressure in atria is greater than pressure in the ventricle

- closure when pressure in ventricle becomes bigger than the atria = lub sound
what opens the aortic valve? closes?
- pressure in LV is greater than that in aorta

- closes when pressure in aorta is greater than that in ventricle = dub
what is the dichrotic notch of aorta?
- due to recoil of previously stretched aorta - second jump in aortic pressure early in diastole
how do you measure stroke volume?
- difference between end diastolic volume & end systolic volume