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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the anesthetic triad?
1) hypnosis - sedation
2) analgesia - pain relief
3) muscle relaxation
what does the bispectral index look at?
- determining point of consciousness

- around 40 is a deep hynotic state - EEG suppression
what is the difference between general anesthesia & sedation?
- line is very blurry

- GA = unresponsiveness

- sedation = patient remains conscious, but cognitive skills diminished (COOPERATIVE SEDATION) - like having 3 glasses of wine
________ is the anesthetic term for blocking near large nerve bundles to cause loss of sensation & motor function
- regional anesthesia
for general anesthesia, most agents are thought to work through what receptor in the brain?

- does not mimic natural sleep patterns
how do gases enter the brain?
- enter b/c partial pressure builds up in alveoli, gas enters blood through capillaries, goes to high perfusion organs first
the onset of action of gases is directly elated to the ______ of the gas in the brain, not the _____ of it in the brain
- partial pressure (the volatility)

- concentration
if a gas is more potent use a lower or higher concentration?
- gas is potent use lower concentration, gas is not potent use higher concentration
what is MAC? what does it compare?
- minimum alveolar concentration

- alveolar concentration of gas in which 50% of patients will respond to a surgical stimuli

- compares potency of drugs
what is the main route of elimination of anesthetic gases?
- usually not metabolized in the body

- eventually eliminated unchanged through respiratory tract
what are some of the CV effects of anesthetic gases?
- myocardial depression

- impaired baroreceptor reflexes

- vasodilation

- increased incidence of dysrythmias
what are some of the respiratory effects of anesthetic gases?
- potent bronchodilators

- respiratory depressants: decreased response to hypoxia, decreased response to hypercarbia (increased CO2) --> not hyperventilating when you should
isoflurane vs sevoflurane
- isoflurane: most commonly administered anesthetic in the world, potent, noxious to inhale

- sevoflurane: less potent, not noxious to inhale, excreted rapidly - used often in pediatric cases
why don't we use NO?
- MAC is way too high - very impotent - would need to be used at MAC 105%

- diffuses rapidly into air filled spaces and expands the size within that space
why do IV anesthetics not last that long (such as propofol)?
- will rapidly re-distribute from the brain so that consciousness will return within 5-10 minutes
what neurotransmitter does ketamine work through? where is it commonly used?
- glutamate & NMDA receptor

- patients appear conscious but do not respond to sensory input

- used in burn patients
narcotics are defined by what?
- their ability to blunt CO2 responsiveness